ENV 10

  1. Theory
    offers a broad, fundamental explanationof many observations
  2. Law
    simple empirical statement thatsummarizes things as they are
  3. what is environmental scienece?
    • • Extremely broad discipline that tries to explain:
    • – How life on earth is sustained
    • – What leads to environmental problems
    • – How can those problems be solved
  4. environmental problems exists because of
    • -human population size
    • -rate of resource consumption
  5. Total impact =
    impact/person x number of people
  6. Greenhouse forcings
    For a given concentration of greenhouse gasses,the amount of heat trapped can be calculatedprecisely.
  7. Climate changes naturally because offorcings related to:
    • 1. Variation in sunlight
    • 2. Shifts in ocean circulation
    • 3. Changes in geology and biology
  8. Geologic & Biological shifts: Natural Climate Variability
    • • Meteors• Life----Rise of oxygen
    • • Shifts in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.
    • • Variations in volcanic activity(aerosols)
  9. Two major forces move the air around:
    • 1.Heat from the sun
    • 2.the coriolis force
  10. Postive feedback
    • Positive feedbacks enhance the warming.
    • – E.g., melting large swaths of ice reduces theearth’s albedo, which is a positive feedback.
  11. Negative Feedback
    • Negative feedbacks reduce the warming.
    • – E.g., higher CO2 can enhance plant growthunder some conditions, which holds CO2 down.
  12. Conveyance
    • Move water from wet to dry areas
    • -downstream flooding
  13. Storage
    save water during wet periods to use during dry periods
  14. San Joaquin - Bay Delta Levee System
    controls 70% of annual runoff in California
  15. Changes in precipitation distrubution
    Less in low latitudes and more in higher latitudes
  16. Spring runoff will occur nearly_______early…
    Three months
  17. Structure of the Atmosphere
    • Thermosphere
    • Mesosphere
    • stratosphere
    • Troposphere
  18. Atmospheric Inversion
    Deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property withaltitude. It almost always refers to a temperature inversion, (i.e. an increase intemperature with height)
  19. Radiation Inversion
    • 1.After sunset, the earth's surface cools and radiates less energy, and the air closest to the surface cools before air higher up
    • 2. Air near surface cooler and denser than air above it
    • Most common on winter mornings
  20. Radiation inversion
    Cold air from surrounding mountain descents into valley while infrared radiation from the surface heats the layer above
  21. Marine Inversion
    Cool marine air undercuts warm air over land
  22. Capping Inversion
    • Flow of air from a high plateau descends andwarms by compression, creating a cap above acooler air mass in a basin below the highlands,resulting in a capping inversion
    • -Santa Ana!
  23. Subsidence Inversion
    An inversion can develop aloft as a result ofair gradually sinking over a wide area andbeing warmed by adiabatic compression,
  24. Sedimentation
    Particles that are heavier than air are removed
  25. Rain out
    Sulfuric and nitric acids are dissolved by rain and removed---acid rain
  26. Oxidation
    Most of the gas phase pollution we put in the atmosphere gets reacted or oxidized
  27. Primary Pollutants
    • 1. Particulate Matter
    • 2. Carbon Monoxide
    • 3. Sulfur dioxide
    • 4. Nitrogen Dioxide
  28. Secondary Pollutants
    • Anything that forms in the atmosphere from chemical transformations of the primary pollutants
    • Ex. Ozone, particulate matter
  29. Photochemical Smog
    • -Los Angeles
    • -Summer
    • -O3 particulates
  30. Winter-time Smog
    • -Denver
    • -Carbon Monoxide, Particulates, Sulfur Dioxide
  31. Acid Rain
    Sulfuric and nitric acid
  32. Criteria Pollutants
    • 1.Carbon monoxide
    • 2. Lead
    • 3. Oxides of nitrogen
    • 4. Ozone
    • 5. Sulfur dioxide
    • 6. Particulate Matter
  33. Key Ingredients that make Photochemical Air Pollution
    • 1. Nitrogen Oxide/VOCs/Carbon monoxide/Particulates
    • 2. Sunlight
    • 3. Poor atmospheric mixing
  34. Good ozone
    In the stratosphere, ozone shields us from the Sun's deadly ultraviolet radiation
  35. Bad Ozone
    • In the troposphere
    • -Impairs lung capacity and reduces agricultural productivity
  36. Relevant pollutants for which there are no existing regulations
    • 1. Ultrafine particles
    • 2. Black Carbon
  37. Where Particles deposit depends on their size
    • Ultrafine: along sensory neurons to circulatory system
    • Fine: penetrate into Alveoli, body cannot remove them
    • Coarse: deposit in upper airways, removed by cilia, but cause asthma
  38. Santa Monica: Summer is Cleaner; Why?
    Summer is cleaner because there is less traffic during the pre-sunrise period
  39. Ozone in the______causes warming
  40. Largest use of CFCs
    • 1. Aerosol cans
    • 2. Refrigeration/air conditioning
    • 3. Semiconductor manuafacturing
    • 4. Foam manufacturing
  41. CFC's absorb at wavelengths
    below 240nm
  42. Destruction of CFCs
    only in stratosphere
  43. 1 Dobson Unit
    0.01 millimeters
  44. Stratospheric ozone most at
    • Mid Latitudes: 350 DU
    • Equator: 250 DU
  45. What can destroy Stratospheric Ozone?
    • 1. Chlorine
    • 2. Bromine
    • 3. Nitrogen Oxides
  46. How much Ozone gets destroyed?
  47. Ozone Destruction at the Poles
    1.Mid Latitudes
    • -5% destruction
    • -warm
    • -sunny
  48. Ozone Destruction at the Poles
    2. Polar regions
    • – Massive O3 hole duringspring time
    • – Very dark
    • – Very cold
    • – PSCs form
    • – Chemical reactions
    • - Free chlorine----massive O3destruction
  49. California Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS)
    Policy requiring 20% ofelectricity generation tobe renewables by 2010,and may be increased to33% by 2017.
  50. California's current renewbale energy percentage
  51. Photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency
  52. Top 3 Countries with installed Solar Photovoltaics
    • 1. Germany 47%
    • 2. Spain 16%
    • 3. Japan 13%
  53. Convential grid
    generation sources respond on-demand to user needs
  54. Smart grid
    respond to many conditions in supply and demand in aintelligent way
  55. Hydrogen is a _____ fuel
    • synthetic (gas/liquid)
    • -requires energy to make it
    • -not an energy source
  56. electrolysis
    Using electricity to separate hydrogen(H2) from water (H2O).
  57. Oxidation reactors
    Burning natural gas in low levels of oxygen to produce CO/CO2 and H2.
  58. What is conservation biology
    • The study of:
    • • biodiversity
    • • threatened and endangered species
    • • ecological and evolutionary processesthat underlie preservation
  59. Instrumental
    if it is good because it provides the means for acquiring something else of value.

    Ex. Having a net worth of a million dollars is an instrumental value. Having those assets is good only to the extent that you can use them to get something else--like happiness.
  60. Intrinsic
    • if it is good ``in and of itself,'' i.e., not merely as a means for acquiring something
    • else.
    • Ex. Happiness might be an example of an intrinsic value, because beinghappy is good just because it's good to be happy, not because being happy leads to anything else.
    • Biodiversity
  61. Factors that affect climate
    • 1. intensity of sunlight
    • 2. albedo: shortwave(solar radiation)
    • 3. Greenhouse effect: Longwave(thermal radiation)
  62. the most important greenhouse gas
    water vapor
  63. climate changes naturally because
    • 1. variation in sunlight
    • 2. Changes in geology and biology
    • 3. Shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation
  64. Most dangerous wavelength
  65. Chapman cycle
    Ozone forms naturally in the stratosphere
  66. most imprtant to destroy ozone
    nitrogen oxide
  67. Phreatic eruption
    sea water seep down into the rock, come close to hot magma, turn into steam, and blow up the volcano
  68. Permafrost
    permanently frozen zone, soil doesnt completely thaw
Card Set
ENV 10