1. Ideas of arcadian environmentalists; Example
    Preserving nature in its prestine form, ambivalent or hostile to modern civilization; John Muir
  2. Ideas of utilitarian environmentalists; Example
    Efficient use of natural resources, welcome advances in science and techonology; Teddy Roosevelt
  3. What happened in the early conservation era?
    Concern over resource use, preservation of public lands, public health intiatives, environmental restoration projects
  4. Beginning of a new environmental era:
    See the earth from space, science of Ecology, anti-environmentalism, broader environmental awareness
  5. Has the earth's climate ever changed significantly before? If so, give an example.
    Yes, the Ice Age
  6. What is the most important human activity other than burning fossil fuels that affects climate change?
    Deforestation, because plants and trees convert CO2 to oxygen. “Carbon Sequestration”
  7. List three solutions to climate change in “Toward a Hydrogen Economy”
    Efficient vehicles, efficient buildings, and reducing amount of vehicles
  8. Ocean acidification is a direct threat to marine organisms (like foraminifera) that have [], an indirect threat to all marine organisms because of connections in the [], and a special threat to [], a marine ecosystem that harbors more
    Shells, food web, coral reefs
  9. CO2 dissolves in water and combines with H20 to form carbonic acid, which immediately splits into H+ and bicarbonate ions. The H+ then combines with carbonate ions, leaving less carbonate for:
    Calcium carbonate - seashells
  10. What is Garrett Hardin’s solution to the tragedy of the commons?
    Privatize the commons and community management
  11. Explain Adam Smith's invisible hand:
    People acting in their own self-interest will find the best solution for everyone. This is not always true though (leads to externalities and Tragedy of the Commons).
  12. How can over-fishing be solved?
    ITQs = indivisual transferrable quotas
  13. Bioaccumulation
    Acculumation of toxins by predation
  14. NGO
    Non-governmental Organization - non profit in another country
  15. Impervious surface
    Non-penetrable surface
  16. Evapotranspiration
    Rate of how much water is let out of plants/ground
  17. Negative externality
    Economic transaction, something that happens indirectly, negatively in the transaction
  18. Total fertility rate
    Average amount of live births a woman will have in reproductive years
  19. Net primary productivity
    Earth's production of biomass - use of biomass
  20. Peak oil
    The maximum rate of production for oil
  21. Ecosystem
    Community of biodiversity fuctioning as an interdependent unit in a given area
  22. Ecosystem service
    Service that the ecosystem provides for our survival
  23. Define biodiversity and give two examples of the value of biodiversity
    Difference in the characters and quality of life; Resiliency, diversity helps keep a species going.
  24. Types of biodiversity
    Genes, species, ecosystems
  25. HIPPO- what does it stand for and what is it?
    Habitat loss, invasive species, pollution, population growth, human comsumption; Why species loss is occuring
  26. Sustainable
    Meeting our present needs without compromising the needs of the future generation
  27. Growth rate equation
    (Birth rate+immigration) + (Death rate+emigration)
  28. How do you decrease TFR-total fertility rate of a nation?
    Birth control, woman's education
  29. Thailand vs China - TFR
    • China- one child policy, birth control
    • Thailand- humor to promote family planning
  30. Paul Erlich and Julian Simon's position on over-population
    • PE = Population graph will level off this century
    • JS = Growth is good - more geniuses=more technology
  31. Environmental footprint
    The number of earths it takes to sustain your way of life
  32. Biological species concept
    Population of natural species that interbreeds under natural conditions
  33. What determines a species?
    Appearances, viable offspring, live in the same area
  34. Increasing life expectancy and decreasing death rate
    Better health care and nutrition, safe water
  35. I=PAT
    Environmental impacts = (population size)(affluence)(technology)
  36. Gross domestic product
    Value of all goods and services produced within one country in one year
  37. Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare
    Measures economic activity in context of environmental cost
  38. Genuine Progress Indicator
    As above but includes measures such as cost of crime and the breakdown of families
  39. Species richness
    Number of species present in an area
  40. Species evenness
    Relative frequency of each species found
  41. Principle of biodiversity
    Richest near the equator, not evenly distributed across the earth, critical to human well being and survival
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