CWC Exam 2

  1. Byzantine Empire
    • What:
    • uniquely both a Greek and a Christian state; eastern Roman Empire

    • Where:
    • centered in Asia; Constantinople

    • When:
    • 500 – 1453 A.D.

    • Significance:
    • an empire built on faith that all people shared. The emperor had absolute power of the church
    • and the state. Islam was the enemy. Constantinople ‘the City’ Eastern Orthodoxy
    • Religion, center of commerce.
  2. Constantinople
    • What:
    • the “second Rome”, center of the empire, and Christian city

    • Where:
    • Byzantine Empire

    • When:
    • founded in the 4th century A.D.

    • Significance:
    • the largest city in Europe during the middle ages. It was a new Rome, clean from centuries of
    • pagan worship and crucial in the preservation of Greco-Roman culture. ‘The City’
    • (Istanbul)
  3. Franks
    • Who:
    • Germanic Tribe

    • Where:
    • France, branching into Germany, northwest of the Roman empire

    • When:
    • late 400’s

    • Significance:
    • only long lasting Germanic kingdom, became Christian under the rule of Clovis,
    • Charlemagne crowned king of the Franks in 800
  4. Pope
    Who: Bishop of Rome

    Where: Rome/Europe

    When: Middle ages to today

    • Significance: Mediator
    • between Man and God, highest on medieval religious hierarchal model, had power
    • over emperors and kings. Used interdicts
    • and excommunication. God—Pope—Clergy,
    • bishop, priests—laity (peasants)—others
  5. Justinian
    • Who:
    • emperor of the eastern Roman Empire

    • When:
    • 527-565

    • Where:
    • Rome

    • Significance:
    • Made the Body of Civil Law and rebuilt the city of Constantinople
  6. Charlemagne
    • Who:
    • Christian emperor of the Franks, ruled Carolingian Empire, most powerful
    • Christian ruler

    • Where:
    • from Germanic people, crowned in Rome

    • When:
    • 800 A.D.

    • Significance: crowned Emperor on Christmas day
    • by the pope, he strived to build the Holy Roman Empire. He forced people to be
    • baptized and established a Christian empire.
  7. Benedict
    • Who:
    • founded monastic house, which established the fundamental form of monastc like
    • in the Western Christian Church

    • When:
    • 480-543

    • Where:
    • Nursia

    • Significance:
    • his monasticism grew and was crucial to the growth of monasticism in the
    • western Christian world
  8. Dark Ages
    • What:
    • a time of the end of Roman order and stability

    • When:
    • 400-1000

    • Where:
    • Rome

    • Significance:
    • It was the time of the fall of Rome
  9. Christendom
    • What:
    • a time of the end of Roman order and stability

    • When:
    • 400-1000

    • Where:
    • Rome

    • Significance:
    • It was the time of the fall of Rome
  10. Muhammad
    • Who:
    • the founder of Islam

    • Where:
    • Mecca

    • When:
    • 600 A.D.

    • Significance:
    • Out of his prophesies and revelations from Allah came the Qur’an. These guidelines formed the religion of
    • Islam.
  11. Islam
    • What:
    • the religions belief that was founded by Muhammed and worships Allah

    • Where:
    • centered in Mecca

    • When:
    • 600 A.D.

    • Significance:
    • Islamists need to follow Allah and the 5 pillars of faith. Islam was the main religion of the western
    • world.
  12. Qur'an
    • What:
    • the revelations give to Muhammad from Allah

    • Where:
    • Mecca

    • When:
    • 600’s A.D.

    • Significance:
    • the authority on Islam. The teachings of
    • Allah from Muhammad stated that there is no god but Allah. It records the beliefs and ethical laws of
    • the religion.
  13. Manorial System
    • What:
    • a hierarchical/economic system of the middle ages

    • Where:
    • Europe

    • When:
    • middle ages

    • Significance:
    • the system of the middle ages that held people groups together allowing for
    • protection and land under a Lord. Lord
    • gets workers to farm, peasants get food, work, protection
  14. Eucharist
    • What: one of the 7 sacraments
    • (Communion)

    Where: Catholic Church

    When: Middle ages to present

    • Significance: Catholics
    • believe it is the blood and body of Jesus Christ that is being taken.
  15. Interdict
    • What:
    • kicking a large group of people out of the church

    • Where:
    • Catholic Church

    • When:
    • Middle Ages

    • Significance:
    • the removal of the grace through which people can receive sacraments. People would be removed from the church
    • because of a vassal lord’s actions. This
    • prompted people to rise up against vassal lords and gave the church a certain
    • form of power over them.
  16. Sacraments
    • What:
    • a visible sign of invisible grace

    • Where:
    • the Catholic church

    • When:
    • Middle Ages

    • Significance:
    • a means of receiving grace in the middle age Catholic Church which included:
    • baptism, conformation, penance, Eucharist, marriage, ordination, last rights.
  17. Holy Roman Empire
    • What:
    • the Empire of Charlemagne

    • Where:
    • Medieval Europe
    • When: 800 A.D.

    • Significance:
    • Christendom; Charlemagne was crowned the king of the Franks by the pope, which
    • tied together the strongest Germanic Christian tribes with the Pope.
  18. Penance
    • What:
    • the steps to forgiveness

    • Where:
    • the Catholic Church
    • When: Middle Ages

    • Significance:
    • confession, repentance, absolution and restitution. Penance was more than just saying sorry.
  19. Excommunication
    • What:
    • being kicked out of the church

    • Where:
    • the Catholic Church
    • When: Middle Ages

    • Significance:
    • a way that the church could have control.
    • They were able to kick people out of the church to maintain order. When excommunicated, people were denied
    • sacraments and grace.
  20. Feudalism
    • What:
    • the main political/military system of the middle ages

    • Where:
    • Medieval Europe

    • When:
    • middle ages 6th-16th century

    • Significance:
    • smaller more localized government hierarchy. Knights pledge loyalty to a noble
    • for protection in army and war, noble gives land to knight (landlord) for land
    • and crops which he disperses.
  21. Scholasticism
    • What:
    • philosophical theology, join faith and reason

    • Where:
    • Europe
    • When: High Middle Ages

    • Significance:
    • St. Anselm ­­used reason to understand religion (was not aware of
    • Aristotle’s text). Aquinas did the same,
    • yet was aware of Aristotle’s writings.
    • Aquinas believed that “faith perfects reason.”
  22. Thomas Aquinas
    • What:
    • the most influential medieval theologian

    • Where:
    • Italy
    • When: 1200’s A.D.

    • Significance:
    • Christianizes Aristotle: “faith perfects reason.” Through our general observations of our
    • surroundings we can learn about the character of God.
  23. Universities
    • What:
    • places for learning theology and the liberal arts

    • Where:
    • around Europe
    • When: during the High Middle Ages (1000 – 1400)

    • Significance:
    • these schools for learning were located in larger cities and predated the
    • universities of today. They provided an
    • avenue for scholasticism to develop.
  24. High Middle Ages
    What: the recovery from the dark ages

    • Where: Western Europe
    • When: 1000 – 1400 A.D.

    • Significance: the bringing back of culture. Growth of cities, increase of commerce. European culture started to become vibrant
    • again and the ideas of Plato and Aristotle were discovered again. Universities were started.
  25. Relics
    • What:
    • symbol of the saints

    • Where:
    • the Catholic church

    • When:
    • Middle Ages

    • Significance:
    • things of parts from the saints that were thought to be channels of grace; they
    • radiated goodness
  26. Crusades
    • What:
    • religions charge or war against the unbelievers, Muslims

    • Where:
    • holy land

    • When:
    • 1000’s – 1200’s A.D.

    • Significance: this was the push to regain the
    • holy lands from the unbelievers, religions enthusiasm against the Muslims and
    • holy war against the unbeliever. There
    • was little impact on the Muslim world, instead the crusades brought ideas from
    • the east to the west.
  27. Pilgrimage
    • What:
    • a trip to a place of religious importance

    • Where:
    • the Catholic Church
    • When: Middle Ages

    • Significance:
    • Christians would go to visit relics as a way to be exposed to the goodness of
    • God and receive his grace
  28. Gothic Cathedrals
    • What:
    • a piece of architecture that was a great artistic triumph of the middle ages

    • When:
    • 12th century

    • Where:
    • Europe

    • Significance:
    • a symbol for medieval people’s preoccupation with God
  29. The Black Death
    • What: plague
    • that spread through Europe

    • When: 1347 -
    • 1351

    Where: Europe

    • Significance: It
    • killed 25 to 50 percent of Europe’s population as it left huge swellings on
    • people that spread through any article that an afflicted person had touched.
  30. The Great Schism
    • What: Crisis in the late
    • Medieval church when there were first two, then three popes

    When: 1378-1417

    Where: Medieval Europe

    • Significance: ended by the
    • Council of Constance. It damaged the
    • faith of Christian believers and the view of the authority of the Church. Both popes denounced the other as an
    • anti-Christ, creating a mixed view of who the pope was and who he was supposed
    • to be. Division in Church. Brings nationalism to the forefront over
    • Christian values
  31. Gutenberg’s Printing Press
    • What: created the printing
    • press

    When: 1445 - 1450

    Where: Europe

    • Significance: allowed printing to become easier and
    • more books to be printed. The Bible was
    • the first printed book with movable type, completed in 1456.
  32. MIchelangelo
    • What: Painter/Sculptor/Architect
    • of the High Renaissance

    When: 1475 - 1519

    Where: Italy

    • Significance: Sistine Chapel
    • and Creation of Adam
  33. Renaissance Humanism
    • What: intellectual movement
    • based on classical literature of Greece and Rome

    • When: Italian Renaissance
    • (1350 – 1550)

    Where: Italy

    • Significance: based on “back
    • to the sources”, focused more on human greatness; puts them at the center of
    • everything. Old Greek and Roman
    • ideals. Lots of Italian words: Ad fontes, l’uomo universale, virtu
  34. Petrarch
    What: father of Renaissance

    When: 15th century

    Where: Italy

    • Significance: sought to find
    • forgotten Latin manuscripts; used terms like Ad fontes, renaissance, ‘middle ages’
  35. Machiavelli
    • What: politician during the
    • Renaissance who was exiled

    When: 1469 - 1527

    Where: Florence, Italy

    • Significance: wrote “The
    • Prince”, influenced politics in the western world, obsessed with power. He looked at how a ruler ought to behave
    • based on moral Christian beliefs: “a ruler should be feared before loved, because
    • people are born evil and will turn from something they love to better
    • themselves.”
  36. Ad Fontes
    What: “back to the sources”

    • When: High Renaissance (1350
    • – 1550)

    Where: Italy, Europe

    • Significance: Classical ideal
    • of high renaissance era; looked to principle ideals of Greco-Roman world as influence
    • on their culture; adopted classical values; produced cultural heroes; example:
    • artist influences in Renaissance & Reformation thinking
  37. l'uomo universale
    • What: person who has a
    • well-rounded personality or universal

    • When: Italian Renaissance
    • (1350 – 1550)

    Where: Italy

    • Significance:
    • these people were admired during the Italian Renaissance. There was a high regard for human
    • dignity. This revived the emphasis on
    • individual ability. Complete man (Renaissance man)
  38. Erasmus
    • What: Dutch Christian
    • Humanist

    When: 1466 - 1536

    • Where:
    • France/England/Germany/Switzerland

    • Significance: most
    • influential of all Christian humanists.
    • He wrote “Handbook of the Christian Knight”, believed that Christianity
    • should be a guiding philosophy for the direction of daily life rather than
    • simple beliefs and practices. “Luther
    • hatched the egg that Erasmus laid.”
    • Translated Greek New Testament.
  39. Peace of Augsburg
    • What: Allowed German princes
    • to chose either Lutheranism or Catholicism

    When: 1555

    Where: Germany

    • Significance: Showed the
    • Lutheranism was becoming a valid religion in Germany and that Protestant ideas
    • were a legal decision for a prince to choose
  40. John Hus
    • What: leader of a group of
    • Czech reformers at the Prague University

    When: 1374 - 1415

    Where: Czech/Bohemia

    • Significance: Not only urged
    • the elimination of the worldliness and corruption of the clergy, but also
    • attacked the power of the papacy within the Catholic church. The council of Constance was sprouted and
    • attempted to deal with the problem of heresy. Burned at the stake.
  41. Edict (Diet) of Worms
    • What: spoke against Martin
    • Luther

    When: 1500’s

    Where: Germany/Europe

    • Significance: made Luther an
    • outlaw and said his works to be burned and Luther was to be captured and
    • brought to the Emperor. Young Emperor
    • Charles declared the Edict.
  42. Luther
    What: started a reform movement questioning the power of the pope/church

    When: 1483 – 1500’s

    Where: Germany - Worms

    • Significance: posted the 95
    • theses which marked the beginning of the reformation and never stepped down
    • from what he said he believed. Luther
    • was very educated, a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg. His idea that salvation was through faith
    • alone challenged what the church said.
    • The beliefs he brought were accepted and still used today by Lutherans.
  43. 95 Theses
    • What: Luther’s writing of the
    • wrong-doings of the church

    When: 1517 A.D.

    Where: Wittenburg - Germany

    • Significance: Nailed to the
    • Church door, originally intended to be a dialogue with church leaders, it was
    • copied and distributed; it opened the eyes of the common man to what the church
    • was doing. It was quickly printed and
    • spread throughout Germany
  44. Protestant Reformation
    • What: Major reforms within
    • Christianity/Church

    When: 1500’s

    Where: Europe

    • Significance: opened the eyes
    • of the people that the church and papacy were abusing their power. Created major split in Christianity
    • (Lutheran/Catholicism) This split led to more in the future
  45. Zwingli
    • What: Swiss reformer priest
    • (w/in Catholic church)

    When: 1484 - 1531

    Where: Switzerland

    • Significance: Pre-cursor to
    • Anabaptist reformation; agrees with Luther on everything but view of communion;
    • believed it is symbolic
  46. Sola scriptura
    • What: scripture is the only
    • authority

    • Significance: Luther defended
    • his beliefs by Scripture alone, and was not interested in what councils or
    • tradition had to say. He wanted to see
    • his points refuted by Scripture. Thus
    • this principle posed a threat to the authority of the Catholic church.
  47. Sola Fide
    • What: Justified by faith
    • alone

    • Significance: Luther believed
    • that we cannot gain grace by works, but that we are only justified by our
    • faith.
  48. Sola gratia
    What: saved by grace alone

    • Significance: Luther believed
    • that are salvation comes from God’s grace, and that there is nothing that we
    • can do ourselves to deserve salvation.
    • This served to question the manner in which Catholics saw salvation: as
    • both grace and acts of penance.
  49. Priesthood of All Believers
    • What: all believers have the
    • right to study and interpret scripture

    • Significance: this has
    • brought about the countless different versions of Christianity. Catholics were opposed to this because they
    • foresaw that many interpretations would arise thus resulting in many different
    • factions of churches.
  50. Averroes
    • Who: A theologian and philosopher who was a major commentor on the works of Aristotle.
    • When: 1126-1198 A.D.
    • Where: Cordoba and Morocco
    • Significance: attempts to reconcile faith and philosophy- ended up being kicked out of Cordoba and his books were burned.
  51. Maimonides
    • Who: a Jewish scholastic who was consulted for work on the Jewish law and doctrine
    • when: 1125-1205
    • where: Cordoba, Morocco, and Egypt
  52. Babylonian Captivity
    • What: the french controlled the Pope
    • When: 1308-1377 A.D.
    • Where: France
  53. Hundred Years War
    • What: a series of wars for the french throne
    • When:1337-1453 A.D.
    • Where: France
    • significance: suggested Christendom doesn't work
  54. Joan of Arc
    • Who: a patron saint of France that led the French army to a series of victories during the Hundred Years War who was burned at the stake.
    • When: 1412-1431
    • Where: France
  55. Mysticism
    • What: the idea of directly communicating with God through dreams and visions
    • When: 12th c.
  56. Hildegard of Bingen
    • Who: was a German Christian mystic who had famous visions
    • When: 12th c.
    • Where: Germany
    • Significance: vision represents the medieval church and its focus on sacraments- salvation only through church
  57. Francis of Assisi
    who: an Italian Catholic friar (preacher) who was also a mystic.
  58. Chaucer
    • Who: Father of english literature an English poet who was the author of cantebary tales that were writings gave insight on human lives
    • When: mid 14th c.
    • Where: England
  59. Dante
    • Who: an Italian poet who wrote about the 7 layers of hell.
    • when: 13th c.
    • where: Italy
  60. Fall of Constantinople
    • What: Constantinople falls to the Ottomon Turks
    • When: 1453
    • Where: Constantinople
    • (end of Byzantine Empire)
  61. Little Ice Age
    • What: a major climate change that caused a colder ( and therefore a shorter) growing season
    • When: 16th-19th c.
    • Where: Europe
  62. Pizan
    • who: first professional female writer who captured the idea that women are capable of virtue.
    • when: 1363-1430
    • where: Italy
  63. Migellan
    • who: a Portuguese explorer who was the first to cross the Pacific Ocean that died on the way
    • when: late 15th c.
    • where: Pacific Ocean
  64. Munster Fiasco
    • What: established a new Jerusalem by force- the leaders were hung on display and rebels were slaughtered
    • When: 1533-1535
    • Where: Germany
  65. Anabaptists
    • who: radical reformers who returned to the practices of early Christianity
    • when: 16th c
    • where: Europe
    • Significance: believed in adult baptism, Lord's supper symbolic, Meninites and Amish branched off - major seperation of church and state
  66. Menno Simons
    • Who: Leader of the rejuvinated Dutch Anabaptist
    • When: 16th c
    • Where: Netherlands, Germany
    • Significance: Spread ideas peacefully and had evangelical Anabaptism that stressed seperation from the world. Meninites were the followers.
  67. Michael Sattler
    • Who: Swiss Anabaptist
    • When: 16th c
    • Where: Switzerland
    • Significance: tried as a heritic and got executed.
  68. Peasants' War
    • What: German peasant revolt in result of Thomas Munster that included the 12 peasant articles
    • When: 1524-1525
    • Where: Germany
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CWC Exam 2
Unit two vocabulary