1. What are the 2 functions of the respiratory system?
    • 1. gas exchange
    • 2. acid-based balance
  2. What are the 2 anatomical zones and what are their functions?
    • 1. conducting zone: bulk movement of gas
    • 2. respiratory zone: gas diffusion between conducting zone and blood
  3. List the parts of the conducting zone from proximal to distal and identify which contain cart. and/or smooth muscle?
    • 1. nasal cavity
    • 2. pharynx
    • 3. larynx- cartilage
    • 4. trachea- cartilage rings
    • 5. bronchus- cartilage and smooth muscle
    • 6. bronchiole
    • 7. terminal bronchiole
  4. Define epiglottis and location?
    larynx > (cart. flap) covers airway during swallowing
  5. Define glottis and location?
    larynx > vocal folds and opening
  6. Define alveolus?
    distal functioning unit > surrounded by cappillaries
  7. List the processes that contribute to respiration?
    • 1. ventilatin
    • 2. external respiration
    • 3. internal respiration
    • 4. cellular respiration
  8. Define ventilation?
    bulk gas movement in/out of conducting zone
  9. Define external respiration?
    gas diffusion between alveolus and blood across the resp. membrane
  10. Define internal respiration?
    gas diffusion between blood and cells
  11. Define cellular respiration?
    • oxidation of organic compounds to produce CO2 and H2O
    • purpose = ATP
  12. What are the components of ventilation?
    • 1. inspiration
    • 2. expiration
  13. Which component of ventilation is (always) active and why?
    • inspiration d/t diaphragm contraction
    • * lung volume increases > pressure decreases
  14. Which component of ventilation is passive and why?
    • expiration d/t diaphragm relax.
    • active (exercise and blockage)
    • * lung volume decreases > pressure increases
  15. What type of compound is a surfactant?
  16. What is a surfactant's function?
    produced by alveolar epith. > decreases tention of water
  17. What does a surfactant prevent?
  18. Define tidal volume?
    air inspired or expired (nl breath)
  19. Define tidal capacity?
    max air expired after max inspiration
  20. Define partial pressure?
    (P) pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture
  21. Cite the rule that governs gas diffusion?
    from high > low partial pressure independently of other gases in the mixture
  22. What are the correct pair of partial pressures that would promote diffusion of a specific gas from one location to another?
    • PO2 alveolus > PO2 blood
    • PCO2 blood > PCO2 alveolus
  23. How is most oxygen transported in the blood?
  24. How is most carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
  25. List the arterial PO2 values with their corresponding % O2 saturation of hemoglobin values and identify the significiance of each one?
    • a. 90 mm Hg= (97% O2 sat.) typical
    • b. 60 mm Hg:= (90%) PO2 < 60--> large decrease in O2 sat. (<60 = resp. failure)
    • c. 40mm Hg= (75%) symptoms
  26. What stimulus does a central chemoreceptor respond to?
    a normal person
  27. How is ventilation rate affected in a central chemoreceptor (normal person)?
    small CO2 increase > rate increase
  28. What is the major drive in a normal person?
    hypercapnic drive
  29. What stimulus does a peripheral chemoreceptor respond to?
    a person with COPD
  30. How is the ventilation rate affected in a peripheral chemoreceptor (COPD)?
    large O2 decrease > rate increase
  31. What is the major drive in someone who retains CO2?
    hypoxic drive
  32. Which of these drives are more precise?
Card Set
Respiratory System