The ABCDEF Method of Mole Assessment
A. ______ common moles are symmetrical and round. Malignant moles are asymmetrical
B. ______ edges or borders of early malignant are uneven contain scalloped or motched edges
C. ______ different shades of brown or black, not evenly shaded
D. ______ melanomas are larger than common (6mm) moles
E. ______ common moles smooth, malignant are uneven
F. ______ common moles don't grow fast, malignant change size rapidly
F. Fast Growing
What are the four effects of Massage on the Skin and Related Structures?
1. Increase Skin Temperature
2. Improves Skin Condition
3. Stimulates oil glands
4. Improves Pathological Skin Conditions
Sensory Receptors of the Skin
1. ____ ____ mediate sensations of discriminative touch such as light versus deep pressure. Most nurmerous in hairless areas such as nipples, fingertips and lips.
2. ____ ____ located in deeper dermal layers, primarily in hand & feet, many joint capsules. Respond & adapt quickly to stimuli, crude/deep pressure, vibration, stretch & recieve proprioceptive information about joint position
3. ____ ____ located in the epidermis; they respond to light and discriminative touch
4. ____ ____ ____ (hair follicle receptors) dectect hair movement & resemble web of receptors wrapping around hair follicles
5. ____ ____ ____ (mucocutaneous or cold receptors) Widely spread in mucous membranes and skin, involved in discriminatory touch & low-frequency vibration. Second thermoreceptor, they detect temps below 65 degrees
6. ____ ____ ____ (heat receptors) Located in dermis & stimulated by deep or continous pressure. They adapt slowly & permit us to stay in contact with grasped objects. Second thermorecptor, they detect temps 85-102 degrees
1. Meissner Corpuscles
2. Pacinian Corpuscles
3. Merkel Disks
4. Hair Root Plexus
5. Krause's End Bulbs
6. Ruffuni End Organs
Five Epidermal Layers of the Epidermis from deepest to most superficial
1. ___ ___ or stratum basale, deepest layer, undergoes continuous cell division & generates all other layers. Also contains Merkel disks, which are nerve endings responding to superficial pressure
2. ___ ___ or prickly layer, bonding & transitional layer between granulosum and germinativum, possessing cells of both these layers
3. ___ ___ layer of cells containing an accumulation of keratin granules, three to five cells deep, depending on thickness of skin. Also marks beginning of change before drying of tissue
4. ___ ___ translucent layer found between corneum and granulosum in the thick skin of hand & feet. Contains cells that are kertinized. Absent in thin skin.
5. ___ ___ outermost layer of skin. By the time these epithelial cells reach the surface, they are no long living cells. Completell keratinized, ready to be sloughed off.
1. Stratum Germinativum
2. Stratum Spinosum
3. Stratum Granulosum
4. Stratum Lucidum
5. Stratum Corneum
The Three Cells of the Epidermis
1. ______ filled with an extremely tough fibrous protein which provides protection by waterproofing the skins surface, keeping water in & water out.
2. ______ produce melanin, protects skin, decrease the amount of UV light penetration & creates a barrier. Freckles & moles are present when melanin produce in concentrated areas.
3. ___ ___ play a limited role in immulogical reactions that affect the skin, originate in bone marrow but migrate to deep layers of epidermis. Together with helper T-cells, they trigger immune reactions.
3. Langerhans Cells
Located in one of the epidermal cells and also known as skin pigment, contribute color to the skin and serve to decrease the amount of UV light that can penetrate into the deep layers of the skin. Also found in hair and eyes. Certain hormones such as those secreted during pregnancy can stimulate the synthesis of melanin, which can cause Chloasma or mask of pregnancy, darkening of skin of face.
What is Melanin?
Four Skin Color Variation Factors
1. _____ or skin pigment created by meloncytes
2. The amount of _____ present in capillaries of the dermis which can cause rosy cast to blue or purple cast of _____
3. Presence of pigment ______ in the blood which can produce yellowish appearance of ______
4. Presence of pigment ______ in the skin, which can produce yellowish appearance in the ethnic group _____
2. Oxygen / Cyanosis
3. Bilirubin / jaundice
4. Carotene / Asians
The Three Glands of the Skin
1. _____ glands, also know as oil glands, secrete sebum, rich in chemicals such as triglicerides, waxes, fatty acids and cholesterol, lubricating both hair and epidermis. Best massage stroke to stimulate is friction
2. _____ glands, also know as sweat glands, 2 million in body secrete sweat or perspiration, regulated by SNS, can be stimulated in response to heat or emotional arousal, breaks down into two groups
A. _____ sweat glands, most numerous widespread sweat glands. Produce the waterly fluid called Sweat, do not exist on lips, ear canals, penis or nail beds.
B. _____ sweat glands, located deep in subcutaneous layer in axillary region, areola of breast and pigmented skin around anus. Joins hair follicles, they enlarge and begin to function at puberty
3. _____ glands, special variety of modified aprocine glands that release its secretion of the surface of the external ear canal. They secrete waxy Cerumen or ear wax.
1. Sebaceous (Oil glands)
2. Sudoriferous (Sweat Glands)
The 5 changes to the skin that are caused by the Aging Process
1. _____ - Skin becomes dry and flakier
2. _____ - Skin color is paler, changes in color of skin.
3. _____ - Wrinkling occurs especially on face & arms. Takes on parchment like appearance
4. _____ - skin feels rougher, may have lines and creases
5. _____ - when pinched, the skin may tent (poor) especially if client is dehydrated
What are the Seven Functions of the Skin
1. ______ acting as a physical, biological and chemical barrier and essential for protecting the underlying tissues
2. ______ limited properties of taking in fat-soluble substances, fat soluble vitamins, steroids, resins of certain plants, and salts and heavy metals
3. ______ considered extension of nervous system, recieves stimuli to pressure, pain and temperature
4. __ ___ __ increase in blood circulation to skins surface, heat is discharged into atmosphere and evaporation of sweat
5. ___ ___ functions as mini-excretory system, eliminating wastes through perspiration of sweat (98% water, 2% solids)
6. ____ ____ precursor molecules that are converted by UV rays in sunlight to Vitamin that stimulates absorption of Calcium & Phosphorus
7. ______ Specialized cells, called Langerhan cells, attack and detroy pathogens, trigger reactions
4. Body Temperature Regulation
5. Waste Elimination
6. Vitamin D Synthesis
Heavily keratinized, non-living tissue that forms the thin hard plates found on the distal surfaces of the fingers and toes. Two main functions are protect the ends of the fingers and use as a tool for digging, scratching and manipulation of objects
What are Nails?
Seven Parts of the Nails
1. ____ also known as eponychium, rough ridge of skin that grows out over the nail from its base
2. ____ ___ ___ most distal portion of thte nail, which is trimmed as a result of nail growth
3. ____ ___ ___ area where hang nails occur, are the edges of the nail where they meet the skin at sides of nail
4. ____ located at the base of the nail of the nails base, is the whitish half-moon shape
5. ____ ____ where nail production takes place at approximately 1mm per week on average
6. ____ ____ main and most visible part of the nail
7. ____ ____ the skin beneath the nail, appears through the clear nail, often as a series of longitudunal edges
2. Free Nail Edge
3. Lateral Nail Folds
5. Nail Root
6. Nail Body
7. Nail Bed
An insoluble fibrous protien that constitutes approximately 70% of the dermis and offers support to the nerves, blood vessels, hair follicles and glands. Main component of connect tissue
Within are pliable fibers called elastin, which gives the skin its elasticity and resilience.
What is Collagen?
1. ____ touch: In regards to receptors, this form of touch is more easily identified but more difficult to locate on the skin.
2. ____ touch: In regards to receptors, this form of touch is more subtle and can be easily located on the skin
1. Crude Touch
2. Discriminative Touch
One of the main layers of the skin, derived from ectoderm, the same embryonic cell layer that gives us the brain, spinal cord and special senses. Contained in its layers are melanocytes, is composed soly of epithelial tissue, is relatively avascular. Outside skin, contains 4-5 layers. The entire life cycle of skin cells from birth to death is 21 to 27 day. Contains Pores, which are openings in skin that secretion of oils takes place.
What is the Epidermis?
Also known as the corium, or hide, is the true skin, possesses a network of nerves and nerve endings. Also contains muscles, hair follicles, sweat glands and oil glands. Collagen is the main component, Located at various levels of the dermis are muscles, hair follicles, sweat and oil glands and numerous blood vessels that help supply the epidermis with nutrients
What is the Dermis?
Also known as the Superficial Fascia or Hyodermis, is not a true region of skin but rather a loose layer rich in fat and areolar connective tissues. Krause End Bulbs and Ruffini End Organs are located here.
What is the Subcutaneous Layer
What is the 4 Main devision of the skin?
Epidermis - Top Layer
Dermis - True Skin
Dermal-Epidermal Junction - where the cells meet and cement the Dermis and Epidermis together
Subcutaneous Layer - Superficial Facia
Excessive amounts of deoxygenated blood in the skin which gives it a blue or purple cast.
What is Cyanosis?
In regards to the skin, cells that push upward from the stratum germinatium into each consectutive layer, die and become keratinized and "fall away"
What is Desquamate?
A genetic condition in which the individual cannot produce melanin or skin pigmentation (coloring). Hair and skin appear white or pale, and iris of eye is pink or red.
What is Albinism?
Located in postcentral gyrus, an elevated area of the brain tissue located in the parietal lobe, is where axons of brain tissue that detect touch terminate. Also know as the "Little Man"
What is Homuculus?
Condition that appears during pregnancy and caused by hormone changes, darkening of the skin of the face and throat. Also known as the mask of pregnancy.
What is Chloasma?
What are the Three Appendages of the Skin?
The Four structures of the Hair 1. ____ ____ Muscles of the hair, contracts and pulls the hair upright when experiecing fright or anxiety. Useless to humans
2. _____ ____ follicles located in the Dermis, pouchlike structures in skin from which hair grows
3. _____ ____ located in the Dermis, this is where hair grows and supplies blood to the follicle
4. _____ ____ located on the surface of the skin, is what is seen & felt on the surface. Comes in shapes of round, oval or flat and ribbon-like
1. Arrector Pilli
2. Hair Follicle
3. Hair Root
4. Hair Shaft
One of the appendages of the skin, is made up of keratin filaments arising from a speciallized follicle in the dermis. Its primary function is protection of the skin and scalp from UV rays, and covers most of the body.
What is Hair?
Three Irritations of Hair Follicles during a massage
1. ______ reaction to the lubricant
2. ______ of the hair
3. ______ use of lubricant on the skin, causing undue _____
3. Insufficient / Friction
Deeper sections of the dermis are characterized by dense bundles of white collagenous fibers that arrange themselves in patterns that differ from one body area to another, a resultant pattern formation