Chapter 8

  1. Deviance
    The violation of norms (or rules or expectations
  2. Crime
    The violation of norms written into law
  3. Stigma
    "Blemishes" that discredit a persons claim to a "normal" identity
  4. Social Order
    A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend on which they base their lives.
  5. Social Control
    A group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
  6. Negative Sanction
    An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or execution.
  7. Positive Sanction
    A reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward.
  8. Genetic Predisposition
    Inborn tendencies (for examples, a tendency to commit deviant acts)
  9. Street Crime
    Crimes such as mugging, rape, and burglary
  10. Personality Disorders
    The view that a personality disturbance of some sort of causes an individual to violate social norms.
  11. Differential Association
    Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant
  12. Control Theory
    the idea that two control systems--inner controls and outer controls--work against our tendencies to deviate
  13. Degradation Ceremony
    A term coined by Harold Garfinkle to refer to a ritual whose goal is to reshape someone's self by stripping away that individuals self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place
  14. Labeling Theory
    The view that the labels people are given affect their own and others' perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity
  15. Techniques of Neutralization
    Ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect (or neutralize) society's norms
  16. Cultural Goals
    The objectives held out as legitimate or desirable for the members of a society to achieve
  17. Institutionalized Means
    Approved ways of reaching cultural goals
  18. Strain Theory
    Robert Merton's term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large number of people to desire a cultural goal (such as success), but withholds from some the approved means of reaching that goal; one adaptation to the strain is crime, the choice of innovative means (one outside the approved systems) to attain the cultural goal.
  19. Illegitimate Opportunity Structure
    Opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life
  20. White-Collar Crime
    Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; for example bribery of public officials, security violations, embezzlement, false advertising, and price fixing.
  21. Corporate Crime
    Crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation
  22. Criminal Justice System
    The system of police, courts, and prisons, set up to deal with, people who are accused of having committed a crime
  23. Recidivism Rate
    The proportion of released convicts who are rearrested
  24. Capital Punishment
    The death penalty
  25. Serial Number
    The killing of several victims in three or more separate event
  26. Hate Crime
    A crime that is punished more severely because it is motivated by hatred (dislike, Hostility, Animosity) of someone's race - ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin
  27. Police Discretion
    The practice of the police , in normal course of their duties, to either arrest or ticket someone for an offense or to overlook the matter
  28. Medicalization of Deviance
    To make deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that need to be treated by physicians
Card Set
Chapter 8
Sociology A-Down-to-Earth-Approach Key Terms