1. Layers of the heart wall in order
    • (outer to inner)
    • epicardium
    • myocardium
    • endocardium
  2. The tissue that composes the middle layer of heart?
    cardiac muscle
  3. What contributes to inner layer of the heart?
    epithelial lining and valves
  4. Chambers, valves, and major vessels associated with the heart in order of flow are:
    • 1.superior + inferior vena cavae-> Right atrium-> tricuspid valve
    • 2.right ventricle->pulmonary valve->pulmonary trunk->pulmonary arteries->pulmonary circulation
    • 3.pulmonary veins->left artium->bicuspid(mitral)valve
    • 4.left ventricle->aortic valve->aorta > systemic circulation
  5. What are the vessels that deliver oxygen to the myocardium?
    coronary arteries
  6. What is myocardial infarction?
    tissue death in myocardium due to decreased flow of oxygen in coronary artery
  7. Name the pacemaker
    sinoatrial node
  8. Where is the pacemaker located?
    right atrium
  9. 1.The length of the refractory period of the conduction system?
    2.What does it prevent?
    • 1.long
    • 2.prevents the heart from beating too fast
  10. Define electrocardiogram
    recording of electrical activity during cardiac cycle
  11. 1.What are the 3 types of waves?
    2.What does each represent?
    • P wave--> atrial depolarization
    • QRS complex--> ventricle depolarization
    • T wave--> ventricle repolarization
  12. Define systole
  13. Define diastole
  14. 1.Which chamber is the cardiac cycle often described in terms of systole and diastole?
    • 1. left ventricle
    • 2. it works the hardest (pumping blood to whole body)
  15. Functions of artieries?
    carries blood away from heart to capillary
  16. Wall characteristics of artieries?
    middle layer contains elastic fibers & smooth muscle
  17. Functions of cappillaries?
    promote exchange
  18. Wall characteristics of cappillaries?
    endothelium (simple squamous epi)
  19. Functions of veins?
    carries blood back to the heart ( cap-->heart)
  20. Wall characteristics of veins?
    same as arteries(elastic fibers & smooth muscle) & valves
  21. Define hydrostatic pressure
    fluid pressure that allows fluid from blood to interstitial space (proximal)
  22. Define osmotic pressure of blood
    the movement of fluid from interstitial space to blood due to albumin (distal)
  23. What is the reference value for the systemic pressure?
    Normal BP (120/80)
  24. Define systolic pressure
    highest aortic pressure during systole
  25. Define diastolic pressure
    lowest aortic pressure during diastole
  26. 2 basic factors that influence arterial pressure
    • cardiac output
    • peripheral resistance
  27. What is cardiac output?
    it's the blood pumped by either ventricle per minute
  28. What is stroke volume?
    blood pumped by either ventricle per beat
  29. What is heart rate?
    beats per minute
  30. What is peripheral resistance?
    opposition to blood flow determined by vessel diameter
  31. Average Adult cardiac output?
    4-6 per minute
  32. Nervous system regulation of BP by modification of cardiac output
    • input---baroreceptors (monitor BP)
    • control center--cardiac regulatory center
    • output--Autonomic Nervous System --heart rate altered and cardiac output altered
  33. Nervous system regulation of BP by modification of peripheral rseistance
    • input--baroreceptors(BP) chemoreceptors (O2 & Co2)
    • control center--vasomotor center
    • output--Autonomic Nervous System--vessel diameter change---peripheral resistance altered
  34. Major arteries in order of flow for upper body
    • 1. subclavin
    • 2. axillary
    • 3. brachial
    • 4. radial and ulnar
    • 5. hand
  35. Major arteries in order of flow for lower body
    • 1.common iliac
    • 2. ext.iliac
    • 3. femoral
    • 4. popliteal
    • 5. antieror and postieror tibial
    • 6. food
  36. Major veins in order of flow for upper body
    • 1. radial & ulnar
    • 2. brachial
    • 3. axillary
    • 4. subclavian
    • 5. SVC
    • AND
    • 1. basilic & cephalic
    • 2. axillary
  37. Major veins in order of flow for lower body
    • 1.antieror and postieror tibial
    • 2. popliteal
    • 3. femoral
    • 4. ext. iliac
    • 5. common iliac
    • 6. inferior vena cava
    • AND
    • great saphenous v-----> femoral v
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