1. Name the 5 special senses
    • 1. Smell
    • 2. Taste
    • 3. Vision
    • 4. Hearing
    • 5. Equilibrium
  2. Where are the special senses housed?
    Complex sensory organs
  3. What are the chemical receptors?
    • 1. Olfaction (smell) and
    • 2. Gustation (taste)
  4. What covers the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate?
    Olfactory Epithelium
  5. How many types of receptor cells in the olfactory epithelium?
  6. Olfacttion:
    Bipolar neurons with cilia or olfactory hairs
    Olfactory receptors
  7. Olfaction:
    Supporting cells
    Columnar epithelium
  8. Olfaction:
    Basal cells =
    Stem cells
  9. Olfaction:
    What replaces receptors monthly?
    Basal cells aka stem cells
  10. Olfactory glands
    Bowman's glands
  11. Form the olfactory nerves (Cranial nerve I) that synapse in the olfactory bulb
    Axons from the olfactory receptors
  12. What passes through foramina in cribriform plate?
    Axons from olfactory receptors
  13. Form the olfactory tract that synapses on cortical areas of the Limbic system
    Second-order neurons within the olfactory bulb
  14. Emotional responses and memory processing
    Second-order neurons within the olfactory bulb
  15. Some olfactory pathways lead to the __________where identification of odor occurs
  16. What does taste require?
    Dissolving of substances
  17. What are the five classes of stimuli?
    • 1. sour
    • 2. bitter
    • 3. sweet
    • 4. salty
    • 5. umani (meaty or savory)
  18. Where are taste buds found?
    • Tongue
    • Soft palate
    • Epiglottis
  19. Found on sides of vallate, foliate & fungiform papillae (not on filiform papillae)
    Taste buds
  20. What are the 3 types of taste? (cells)
    • Supporting cells
    • Receptor cells
    • Basal cells
  21. An oval body consisting of 50 receptor cells surrounded by supporting cells
    Taste Bud
  22. What projects upward through the taste pore?
    A single gustatory hair
  23. Basal cells develop into new receptor cells every ____days
  24. Physiology of Taste:
    Complete adaptation occurs in ____________
    1 to 5 minutes
  25. Thresholds for tastes vary among _____________________
    the 5 primary tastes
  26. Thresholds for taste:
    Most sensitive to bitter
  27. Thresholds for taste:
    Least sensitive to ______ and _______
    salty and sweet
  28. Taste Mechanism:
    Dissolved substance contacts __________ _______
    gustatory hairs
  29. Taste Mechanism:
    Where is the nerve impulse formed?
    1st order neuron
  30. Where are first-order gustatory fibers found?
    In cranial nerves
  31. Serves anterior 2/3 of tongue
    CN VII (facial)
  32. Serves posterior 1/3 of tongue
    CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
  33. Serves palate & epiglottis
    CN X (vagus)
  34. Gustatory Pathway:
    Signals travel to brain stem and thalamus or __________ & ___________
    limbic system & hypothalamus
  35. Extend from the thalamus to the primary gustatory area on parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex
    Taste fibers
  36. Provide conscious perception of taste
    Taste fibers extend from the thalamus to the primary gustatory area on parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex
  37. What are the 3 accessory structures of the eye?
    • 1. eyelids
    • 2. eyelashes and eyebrows
    • 3. lacrimal glands
  38. Help protect eye from foreign objects, perspiration and sunlight
    Eyelashes & Eyebrows
  39. Found at base of eyelashes (sty)
    Sebaceous glands
  40. Gap between the eyelids
    Palpebral fissure
  41. Lacrimal Apparatus:
    How much tears are produced per day? And what is it used for?
    1 ml; spread over eye by blinking
  42. Contains bactericidal enzyme called lysozyme
  43. What are the 3 Tunics (Layers) of eyeball
    • 1. Fibrous Tunic (outer layer)
    • 2. Vascular Tunic (middle layer)
    • 3. Nervous Tunic (inner layer)
  44. Fibrous Tunic
    Nonvascular, Transparent
    Helps focus light (refraction)
    Parallel collagen fibers
  45. Why are cornea transplants common and successful?
    no blood vessels so no antibodies to cause rejection
  46. How is the cornea nourished?
    By tears & aqueous humor
  47. “White” of the eye
    Dense irregular connective tissue layer -- collagen & fibroblasts
    Provides shape & support
    Sclera (Fibrous Tunic)
  48. At the junction of the sclera and cornea is an ______(scleral venous sinus)
  49. Sclera posteriorly pierced by _____________
    Optic Nerve (CNII)
  50. Vascular Tunic
    Pigmented epithilial cells (melanocytes) & blood vessels
    Provides nutrients to retina
    Black pigment in melanocytes absorb scattered ligh
  51. Folds on ciliary body
    Secrete aqueous humor
    Ciliary Processes
  52. Smooth muscle that alters shape of lens
    Ciliary Muscle
  53. What are the two parts of the ciliary body?
    Ciliary processes & Ciliary muscle
  54. Suspensory ligaments attach lens to _______ _______
    Ciliary process
  55. Vascular Tunic - Ciliary Body
    Controls tension on ligaments & lens
    Ciliary muscle
  56. Vascular Tunic
    Colored portion of eye
    Shape of flat donut suspended between cornea & lens
    Hole in center is pupil
    Function is to regulate amount of light entering eye
  57. Vascular Tunic
    Constrictor pupillae (circular) are innervated by parasympathetic fibers while Dilator pupillae (radial) are innervated by sympathetic fibers.
    Response varies with different levels of light
    Muscles of the Iris
  58. Avascular
    Crystallin proteins arranged like layers in onion
    Clear capsule & perfectly transparent
  59. Held in place by suspensory ligaments
  60. Focuses light on retina
  61. Nervous Tunic
    Posterior 3/4 of eyeball
    Macula lutea with central fovea
    Optic disc
  62. Optic nerve exiting back of eyeball
    Optic disc
  63. Layers of Retina:
    Nonvisual portion
    Absorbs stray light & helps keep image clear
    Pigmented Layer
  64. Neural layer:
    What are the 3 layers of neurons (outgrowth of brain)
    • 1. photoreceptor layer
    • 2. bipolar neuron layer
    • 3. ganglion neuron laye
  65. Discriminates shapes & movements
    Shades of gray in dim light
    Distributed along periphery
    Rods --- rod shaped
  66. How many rod cells are there?
    120 million rod cells
  67. Sharp, color vision
    6 million
    Fovea of macula lutea
  68. Densely packed region
    At exact visual axis of eye
    Sharpest resolution or acuity
    Fovea of macula lutea
  69. Cavities of the Interior of Eyeball:
    Filled with aqueous humor
    Produced by ciliary body
    Continually drained
    Anterior cavity (anterior to lens)
  70. Where is the anterior chamber of the eyeball?
    Between cornea and iris
  71. Where is the posterior chamber of the eyeball?
    Between iris and lens
  72. Cavities of the Interior of Eyeball:
    Filled with vitreous body (jellylike)
    Formed once during embryonic life
    Floaters are debris in vitreous of older individuals
    Posterior cavity (posterior to lens)
  73. Continuously produced by ciliary body
    Flows from posterior chamberinto anterior through the pupil
    Aqueous Humor
  74. Canal of Schlemm
    Opening in white of eyeat junction of cornea & sclera Drainage of aqueous humor from eye to bloodstream
    Scleral venous sinus
  75. Increased intraocular pressure that could produce blindness
    Problem with drainage of aqueous humor
  76. Collect sounds
    External Ear
  77. Elastic cartilage covered with skin
    auricle or pinna
  78. ceruminous glands produce cerumen
    Ear wax
  79. Curved tube of cartilage & bone leading into temporal bone
    External auditory canal
  80. tympanic membrane
  81. What is the tympanic membrane made of?
    epidermis, collagen & elastic fiber
  82. Air filled cavity in the temporal bone
    Separated from external ear by eardrum and from internal ear by oval & round window
    Middle Ear Cavity
  83. 3 ear ossicles connected by ________ ______
    synovial joints
  84. Auditory tube leads to ____________
  85. helps to equalize pressure on both sides of eardrum
  86. Middle Ear Cavity:
    malleus attached to eardrum, incus & stapes attached by foot plate to membrane of _____ ________
    oval window
  87. Stapedius muscle inserts onto ____
  88. Muscles of the ear:
    prevents very large vibrations of stapes from loud noise
    Stapedius muscle
  89. Tensor tympani attaches to _______
  90. Limits movements of malleus & stiffens eardrum to prevent damage
    Tensor tympani
  91. Inner Ear
    Set of tubelike cavities in temporal bone
    Bony labyrinth
  92. Inner Ear:
    semicircular canals, vestibule & cochlea lined with periosteum & filled with __________
  93. Inner Ear:
    Surrounds & protects Membranous Labyrinth
    Bony labyrinth
  94. Inner Ear:
    Set of membranous tubes
    Membranous labyrinth
  95. Inner Ear:
    Containing sensory receptors for hearing & balance and filled with endolymph
    membranous labyrinth
  96. What are the 3 fluid filled channels found within the cochlea?
    • 1. scala vestibuli
    • 2. scala tympani
    • 3. cochlear duct
  97. Section thru one turn of Cochlea:
    Partitions that separate the channels are ____ shaped
    Y shaped
  98. Section thru one turn of Cochlea:
    Vestibular membrane above & basilar membrane below form the _____________________
    Central fluid filled chamber (cochlear duct)
  99. Section thru one turn of Cochlea:
    Receptor cells located in ________________
    spiral organ of Corti
  100. Section thru one turn of Cochlea:
    Hair endings on cells insert into ______________
    tectorial membrane
  101. Anatomy of the Organ of Corti:
    hair cells have _______________
    Stereocilia (microvilli)
  102. Anatomy of the Organ of Corti:
    Make contact with tectorial membrane (gelatinous membrane that overlaps the spiral organ of Corti)
  103. Mechanism of hearing:
    Pushes on fluid of scala vestibuli at oval window
  104. Mechanism of hearing:
    Where does the vibration move into scala tympani?
    At helicotrema
  105. Mechanism of hearing:
    Dissipated at round window which bulge
    Fluid vibration
  106. Mechanism of hearing:
    The central structure is vibrated aka
    cochlear duct
  107. Sounds at different frequencies vibrate different portions of the _____ ________
    Basilar membrane
  108. Vibrate the stiffer more basal portion of the cochlea
    high pitched sounds
  109. Vibrate the upper cochlea whichis wider and more flexible
    Low pitched sounds
  110. Cause a greater vibration of the basilar membrane & stimulate more hair cells which our brain interprets as “louder”
    Loud sounds
  111. Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
    Carries sensory inputs for hearing into brain stem and then projects to inferior colliculus, thalamus (medial geniculate nucleus) and primary auditory cortex
    Cochlear part of cranial nerve
  112. Semicircular ducts with ampulla, utricle & saccule
    Vestibular Apparatus
  113. Maintain the position of the body (head) relative to the force of gravity
    Macula receptors within saccule & utricle
    Static equilibrium
  114. Otolithic Organs: Saccule & Utricle
    Thickened regions within the saccule & utricle of the vestibular apparatus
  115. Otolithic Organs: Saccule & Utricle--
    Gelatinous otolithic membrane contains calcium carbonate crystals called ___________
  116. Move when you tip your head
  117. Detection from: Movement of stereocilia or kinocilium results in the release of neurotransmitter onto the vestibular branches of the vestibulocochler nerve
    Detection of Position of Head
  118. Maintain body position (head) during sudden movement of any type--rotation, deceleration or acceleration
    Crista receptors within ampulla of semicircular duct
    Dynamic equilibrium
  119. Detection of Rotational Movement:
    When the head moves, what moves with it?
    The attached semicircular ducts and hair cells
  120. Detection of Rotational Movement:
    When the head moves this does not, and bends the cupula and enclosed hair cell
    Endolymph fluid
  121. Detection of Rotational Movement:
    What region: ampulla, membrane called crista
    Receptor region
  122. Cranial nerves of the Ear Region:
    Vestibulocochelar nerve
  123. Cranial nerves of the Ear Region:
    Form the vestibular branch
    • Branches:
    • 1. Ampullary
    • 2. Utricular
    • 3. Saccular
  124. Cranial nerves of the Ear Region:
    Has spiral ganglion in bony modiolus
    Cochlear branch
  125. Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII):
    Carries sensory inputs for equilibrium into brain stem and then projects to cerebellum, cerebral cortex and spinal cord
    Vestibular part of cranial nerve
Card Set
Special Senses1