Back Information [3]

  1. Movements of the Back
    • flexion
    • extension
    • hyperextension
    • lateral flexation
    • rotation
  2. Extrinsic Muscles
    (on the back)

    f: move the upper arm

    include: levator scapulae, rhomboid (major and minor), trapezius, latissimus dorsi, teres (major and minor), fossal muscles (infraspinatis, supraspinatus, subscapularis), deltoid, serratus posterior (superior and inferior)
  3. Intrinsic Muscles
    (of the back)

    f: posture and alignment

    include: splenius (capitis and cervicis), erector spinae (iliocostalis, longismus, spinalis), semispinalis, quadratus lumborum, intertransversarii, multifidi, rotators, interspinalis
  4. Flexion
    decrease in angle (bending forward)

    cervical back: touching chin to manubrium

    thoracic back: shrugging shoulders forward

    lumbar back: bending at hips to touch floor
  5. Extension
    increase in angle (heading backwards towards vertical)

    cervical back: bringing chin from manubrium, back to vertical

    thoracic back: bringing shoulder back to normal, after shrugging forward

    lumbar back: after being bent forward, bent at the hips, returning to a vertical position

    (compensatory movement = one comes before the other)
  6. Lateral flexion
    increase in one angle, decrease in another angle, movement occurs in the frontal plane

    cervical back: touching ear to shoulder, not moving shoulder

    thoracic back: side to side

    lumbar back: bending laterally at hips in frotnal plane
  7. Rotation
    movement along long axis (medial and lateral rotation)
  8. Muscles that Move the Scapula
    1. levator scapulae

    2. trapezius

    3. Rhomboid (major and minor)
  9. Action of levator Scapulae
    elevate scapula, tilts its glenoid cavity inferiroly by rotating scapula

    Image Upload 2
  10. Action of the trapezius muscle
    elevate, retract, and rotate scapula

    descending part: elevate pectoral girdle, maintain level of shoulders agaisnt gravity or resistance

    ascending part: depresses shoulders

    middle part: retracts scapula

    • descending and ascending parts: rotate scapula upward w/ shoulders fixed, bilateral contraction extends neck, unilateral contraction produces lateral flexion to same side
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  11. Action of the Rhomboid (Major and Minor)
    holds scapula against thoracic wall

    rotates scapula to depress glenoid cavity of scapula

    retracts scapula

    Image Upload 6
  12. Muscles that move the humerus
    • 1) latissimus dorsi
    • 2) teres minor
    • 3) teres major
    • 4) infraspinatis
    • 5) supraspinatis
    • 6) subscapularis
    • 7) deltoid
  13. Latissimuis Dorsi Action
    extend, adduct, and medially rotate humerus

    raise body towards arms while climbing
  14. Teres Major Action
    adduct and medially rotate arm
  15. Teres Minor Action
    laterally rotate arm

    help hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula
  16. Infraspinatus Action
    laterally rotates the arm

    helps hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

    Image Upload 8
  17. Supraspinatus Action
    initiate and assists deltoid in abduction of arm and acts with rotator cuff muscles

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  18. subscapularis action
    medially rotates and adducts arm; helps hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

    Image Upload 12
  19. deltoid muscle action
    • clavicular part: flexes and medially rotates arm
    • acromial part: abducts arm
    • spinal part: extends and laterally rotates arm

    Image Upload 14
  20. Muscles of Respiration
    Serratus posterior superior

    serratus posterior inferior
  21. Serratus Posterior Superior Action
    elevates ribs
  22. Serratus Posterior Inferior Action
    Depress Ribs
  23. Scoliosis
    lateral curvature of the spine

    (uneven hip alignment is a sign, so is a lateral deviation of the spine)
  24. Back Consists of:
    • Skin
    • Superficial Fascia (subcutaneous tissue)
    • Deep Fascia
    • Extrinsic Muscles
    • Intrinsic Muscles
    • Ligaments
    • Vertebral Column
    • Ribs (in Thoracic Region)
    • Spinal Cord and Meninges (covering spinal cord)
    • various segmental nerves and vessels
  25. What do Curvatures of the Vertebral Column Provide?
    flexible support (shock - absorbing resilience)
  26. Name the Curvatures of the Spine
    • 1) Cervical
    • 2) Thoracic
    • 3) Lumbar
    • 4) Sacral

    Image Upload 16
  27. Name the primary curvatures
    1) thoracic

    2) sacral
  28. What is a primary curvature?
    a curvature developing during fetal period
  29. Name the Secondary Curvatures
    1) Cervical

    2) Lumbar
  30. What is a Secondary Curvature?
    a curvature that begins to appear in the cervical region during fetal period, but they do not become obvious until infancy
  31. what is "kyphoses"?
    kyphoses = concave anteriorly

    (thoracic and sacral curvatures of the vertebral column)

    Image Upload 18
  32. what is "lordoses"?
    concave posteriorly (convex anteriorly)

    (cervical and lumbar curvatures of the vertebral column)

    Image Upload 20
  33. Flexibility provided by vertebral column curvatures is resisted by what?
    Flexibility provided by curvatures is actively resisted by contraction of muscle groups antagoinist to movement
  34. When do Lumbar Curvatures of the Vertebral Column become apparent?
    Apparent when infant begins to walk and assume the upright posture
  35. When do Cervical Curvatures of the Vertebral Column become apparent?
    prominant when infant holds head erect
  36. what is the lumbosacral angle?
    the lumbosacral angle is the junction of lumbar region of vertebrae and the sacrum
  37. Name all of the bones of the Vertebral Column
    (provide name and number of each)
    • Cervical (7)
    • Thoracic (12)
    • Lumbar (5)
    • Sacrum (5)
    • Coccyx (4)

    That makes 33 total
  38. Landmarks of the Back (304 - lecture book)
    • 1. intergluteal cleft
    • 2. dimples indicating posterior superior iliac spine
    • 3. os coxae
    • 4. scapula
    • 5. ribs
    • 6. spinous processes of vertebrae
    • 7. vertebral prominens (spinous process of C7)
    • 8. posterior medial furrow
    • 9. nuchal groove (site of nuchal ligament)
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Back Information [3]
Back Information [3]