The Two Active Processes of the Cell
1. _______ ______ process of moving important atoms and molecules such as ions against the concentration gradient from low levels to high levels, the mechanism at which is both chemical and physical. Chemical breakdown of ATP molecules (40% of ATP used soley for this purpose)
2. _______ is the process that moves large particles across the cell membrane into the cell. Examples of this are phagocytosis and pinocytosis, both are which are vital to the immune defense system in the body.
A. _______ or "cell eating" process by which specialized cells ingest harmful micro-organisms and cellular debris, break them down, and expel the harmless remains back into the body
B. _______ or "cell drinking" process by which specialized cells engulf harmful liquid micro-organisms and cellurlar debris, break them down and expel the harmless remains back into the body.
- 1. Active Transport
- 2. Endocytosis
- A. Phagocytosis
- B. Pinocystosis
The Three Passive Processes of the Cell.
1. ______ is the movement of particles across the cellular membrane because of pressure. A pressure gradient across a cell membrane is the force that drives the process. Example is the kidney's system
2. ______ is the movement of molecules, or other particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, continues until the distribution of particles in equal in all areas.
3. ______ is the movement of pure solvent such as water from an area of low concentration (most dilute) to an area of high concentration (least dilute). Water moves instead of particles to create equelibrium
- 1. Filtration
- 2. Diffusion
- 3. Osmosis
1. ______ plane, also known as Coronal plane, is the plane passes through the body from side to side, creating anterior and posterior sections.
2. ______ plane, also known as Transverse plane, plane passing through the body creating superior and inferior sections.
3. ______ plane, also known as Median plane, runs longitudinally (vertically) down the body, dividing the body into right and left sections
4. ______ plane, the plane that passes through the body parallel to the median plane.
5. ______ _____ is the standard body position used in Western Medicine with the body erect and facing foward arms to the side palms facing foward.
- 1. Frontal
- 2. Horizontal
- 3. Midsagittal
- 4. Sagitall
1. _____ is an avascular, tough, protective tissue capable of withstanding repeated stress found in thorax, joints and tubes of body.
2. ______ Cartilage, also known as gristle, is most common type of cartilage that is elastic, rubbery and smooth composed of cells in a translucent, pearly blue matrix and covers articulating ends of bones; connects ribs to the sternum; and supports the nose, trachea and part of the larynx. Fetal skeleton has the most.
3. ______ Cartilage found between the vertebrae, in the knee joint, and between pubic bones. Has the greatest tensile strength of all cartilage types.
4. ______ Cartilage (yellow) is the softest and most pliable of all three kinds, consisting of elastic fibers in a flexible fibrous matrix. Gives shape to external nose and ears and epiglottis.
- 1. Cartilage
- 2. Hyaline
- 3. Fibrocartilage
- 4. Elastic
Four Types of Tissues of the Body
1. ________ Tissue that make up most of the body and helps transport nutrients, defends the body against disease, assists in blood clotting and acts as a supportive framework. Most abundant and ubiquitous tissue. Five types Liquid (blood), bone or osseous, cartilaginous, loose, and dense.
2. ________ Tissue lines or covers internal & external (skin) organs of the body. Closely packed typically avascular & recieves nutrition by diffusion from blood vessels. Lines blood vessels and body cavities, and digestive, respiratory, urninary, and reproductive tracts. The functions of this tissue include protection, absorption, filtration, secretion, excretion and diffusion.
3. ________ Tissue, extremely elastic and vascular that has the ability to shorten (contract) and elongate (stretch) to produce movement and includes types such as smooth, cardiac and Skeletal Tissue
4. ________ Tissue that has the ability to detect and transmit electrical signals by converting stimuli into nerve impulses.
- 1. Connective Tissue
- 2. Epithelial Tissue
- 3. Muscle Tissue
- 4. Nerve Tissue
1. ______ Connective Tissue, also known as Vasular tissue, consists of blood, lymph and interstitial fluid.
2. ______ Connective Tissue, or BONE, consists of compact tissue, a spongy cancellous tissue, collagenous fibers and mineral salts.
3. ______ Connective Tissue that attaches skin to underlying structures, wraps & supports body cells, fills in spaces between structures and keeps them in place. Types are Areolar, Adipose, and Reticular.
4. ______ Connective Tissue, one of the most widely, and along with Adipose tissue, forms the subcutaneous layer of skin (superficial facia), also attaches skin to underlying tissues.
5. ______ Connective Tissue, or fatty tissue. is specialized fat storage, include yellow bone marrow, insulates the body against heat loss, provides fuel reserves for energy and cushions structures such as the heart & kidneys
6. ______ Connective Tissue forms the supportive framework of bones and of certain organs such as the liver and spleen.
- 1. Liquid Connective Tissue
- 2. Osseous Connective Tissue
- 3. Loose Connective Tissue
- 4. Areolar Connective Tissue
- 5. Adipose Connective Tissue
- 6. Reticular Connective Tissue
Groups of similar cells that act together to perform a specific function and include epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve
What are Tissues?
1. ______ Connective Tissue, a fibrous connective tissue consists of compact, strong, inelastic bundles of parallel collagenous fibers that have a glistening white color. The two types are Regular and Irregular.
2. ______ ______ Connective Tissue, also known as organized, offers great strength, can resist pulling forces in one direction such as ligaments, tendons, retinacula and aponeuroses
3. ______ ______ Connective Tissue, also known as unorganized, resists pulling forces in several different directions such as deep fascia, deep epidermis and periosteum
- 1. Dense
- 2. Dense Regular
- 3. Dennse Irregular
The study of how the body and its individual parts function in normal body processes. The processes are both physical and chemical.
Comparative - studies similarities and differences of vital processes
Developmental - studies embryonic development
Pathophysiology - or pathology studies physical and chemical processes involved in disease
What is Physiology?
The consistancy of the body's internal environment, representing a relatively stable condition of the body's internal environment within a limited range.
What is Homeostasis?
The total of all the physical and chemical processes that occur in an organism and results in growth, generation of energy, elimination of wastes and other bodily functions as they relate to the distribution of nutrients after in the blood after digestion.
What is Metabolism?
The study of the structures of the human body and their positional relationship to one another.
What is Anatomy?
An organ system that includes skin and its appendages or derivatives including hair, nails, and related glands.
What is the Integumentary System?
The fundamental unit of all living organisms and is the simplest form of life that can exist as a self-sustaining unit. Building blocks of the human body.
Consists of four elements; carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen.
What is a Cell?
The three parts of the Cell
1. ______ ______ Seperates the cytoplasm from the surrounding external environment creates a semipermeable boundary that governs exchange of nutrients and waste materials
2. ______ consisting primarily of water, this is a gel-like intracellular fluid within the cell membrane, provides cellular nutrition and supports organelles
3. ______ little organs which are necessary for metabolism. Each one possessing a distinct structure and function within the cell. Include Nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, and lyosomes.
- 1. Cell (plasma) Membranes
- 2. Cytoplasm
- 3. Organelles
The Six Organelles of the Cell
1. _______ Largest and most obvious organelle in the cytoplasm. Control center of the cell, directing nearly all metabolic activities.
2. _______ Small granules of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and protein in cytoplasm. Synthesize protein for use within the cell and produce other proteins that are exported outside the cell.
3. _______ ________ Complex network of membranous channels within the cystoplasm. Structures often extend from the cell membrane to the nuclear membrane.
4. _______ ________ Series of four to six horizontal membranous sacs. "Packing & Shipping plant of cell" associated with altering proteins and lipids, packs and stores them until needed.
5. _______ oval organelle is considered the cell's power plant, site for cellular respiration and provides most of cells Adenosine Triphospate (ATP), the body's enery molecule.
6. _______ membrane-bound organelles containing digestive enzymes. They can engulf pathogens, cellular debris,& other organelle to digest them, any reusable matter is then returned to cytoplasm for reuse
- 1. Nucleus
- 2. Ribosomes
- 3. Endoplasmic Reticulum
- 4. Golgi Body
- 5. Mitochondria
- 6. Lyosomes
The Three types of Muscle Tissue
1. ______ muscle (involuntary-visceral) forms walls of hollow organs and tubes such as stomach, bladder, uterus, and blood vessels. Cosuming little energy, adapted for long sustained contractions.
2. ______ muscle (voluntary-striated) fibers are cigar-shaped and multinucleated, contains bands of white and red material, which causes to look striped or striated.
3. ______ muscle (involuntary-striated) is located in heart wall and is Y or H shaped, allowing cells to fit together similar to clasped fingers and help create the spherical shape of the heart.
- 1. Smooth Muscle
- 2. Skeletal Muscle
- 3. Cardiac Muscle
Thin, soft, pliable sheets of tissue that cover the body, line tubes or body cavities, cover organs, and seperate on part from another. The major types;
Epithelial - composed of epithelium and underlying connective tissue
Connective Tissue - composed exclusively of various types of connective tissue
What are membranes?
The 3 Types of Epithelial Membranes and 1 Connective Tissue Membrane
1. _____ Membrane, covers the entire surface of the body. Also known as the skin, is the largest organ of the body.
2. _____ Membrane, lines openings to the outside to the outside of the body. Secretes the mucus that lubricates and protects associated structures.
3. _____ Membrane, lines closed body cavities that do not open to the outside of the body. Consists of 2 layers, a parietal layer lines wall of body cavities and visceral layer, provides covering to organs in closed body cavities.
4. _____ Membrane, or synovium the ONLY Connective Tissue Membrane in the body. Lines cavities of free moving joints. Secretes synovial fluid which lubricates the joints to keep them free moving.
- 1. Cutaneous
- 2. Mucous
- 3. Serous
- 4. Synovial
Cavities of the Body
1. ______ Cavity, located on the posterior aspect of the body that can be further divided into the cranial and spinal cavities.
2. ______ Cavity, located on the anterior aspect of the body and can be further devided into the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
3. ______ Cavity, contains the right and left lungs and the mediastinum (heart)
4. ______ Cavity, contains the digestive system and its accesory organs.
5. ______ Cavity, contains the organs of the reproductive system and urinary systems
- 1. Dorsal Cavity
- 2. Ventral Cavity
- 3. Thoracic Cavity
- 4. Adominal Cavity
- 5. Pelvic Cavity
1. ______ or Vental; front side of a structure
2. ______ or Dorsal; back of a structure
3. ______ or Cranial; above or toward the head end
4. ______ or Caudal; below or toward the tail end
5. ______ nearest the inside (within) of a body cavity
6. ______ nearest the outside of a body cavity
- 1. Anterior
- 2. Posterior
- 3. Superior
- 4. Inferior
- 5. Internal
- 6. External
1. ______ toward the midline of the body / ______ farther away from the midline of the body
2. ______ related to the same side of the body / ______ related to the opposite sides of the body
3. ______ farther from the point of reference, usually away from midline / ______ nearest to point of reference, toward the midline
4. ______ or deep pertaining to or situated at center of body / ______ or peripheral pertaining to outside surface
5. ______ Nearest to the inside (within) a body cavity / Nearest to outside of the body cavity
- 1. Medial / Lateral
- 2. Homolateral / Contralateral
- 3. Distal / Proximal
- 4. Central / Superficial
- 5. Internal / External
Regional Terms of Head and Neck
1. _____ cheek area, / ______ neck area, / ______ head end
2. _____ (skull) head end / ____ face area / ______ forehead
3. _____ lower jaw / _____ chin area / _____ nose region
4. _____ posterior neck / _____ posterior and inferior surfaces of head
5. _____ mouth region / _____ (ophthalmic) eye area / _____ (auricular) ear area
- 1. Buccal / Cervical / Cephalic
- 2. Cranial / Facial / Frontal
- 3. Mandibular / Mental / Nasal
- 4. Nuchal / Occipital
- 5. Oral / Orbital / Otic
Regional Terms of Upper Extremity
1. _____ top of shoulder / ______ forearm, between wirst and elbow
2. _____ armpit region / ______ upper arm, between shoulder and elbow
3. _____ wrist region / ______ elbow / _____ bend of elbow or front of elbow
4. _____ curve of shoulder and upper arm formed by deltoid muscle
5. _____ (phalangeal) fingers & toes / _____ (volar) anterior surface of hand / ____ thumb
- 1. Acromial / Antebrachial
- 2. Axillary / Brachial
- 3. Carpal / Cubital / Antecubital
- 4. Deltoid
- 5. Digital / Palmar / Pollex
Regional Terms of Anterior Torso
1. ____ (celiac) anterior trunk, between the thorax & pelvis / _____ ribs
2. ____ (inguinal) area where the thigh meets the abdomen / _____ (mammary) upper anterior thorax
3. ____ portion on thoracic cavity occupying area between lungs / ____ inferior region of abdominopelvic cavity
4. ____ region between pubis & coccyx, inferior pelvic cavity / region of pubic symphysis or genital area
5. ____ between the neck & respiratory diaphragm / _____ mid-abdomen or naval
- 1. Abdominal / Costal
- 2. Groin / Pectoral
- 3. Mediastinal / Pelvic
- 4. Perineal / Pubic
- 5. Thoracic / Umbilical
Regions of Posterior Torso
1. ______ bottom of the spine; upper region of the gluteal cleft
2. ______ curve of the buttocks formed by the gluteal muscles
3. ______ low back; between the ribs and the hips / _____ sacrum of the spinal column
4. ______ between the sacrum and the pelvic bone
5. ______ should blade area / ______ vertebrae of spinal column
- 1. Coccygeal
- 2. Gluteal (buttock)
- 3. Lumbar / Sacral
- 4. Sacroiliac
- 5. Scapular / Vertebral
Regional Terms of the Lower Extremity
1. _____ heel / _____ posterior leg / _____ hip region
2. _____ leg / _____ (phalangeal) finger & toes
3. _____ top of foot / _____ femur or thigh area, between the hip & knee
4. _____ great toe / ____ kneecap / _____ foot or feet
5. _____ (volar) bottom surface or sole of foot / _____ posterior aspect of knee / _____ ankle
- 1. Calcaneal / Calf (sural) / Coxal
- 2. Crural / Digital
- 3. Dorsum / Femoral
- 4. Hallux / Patellar / Pedal
- 5. Plantar / Popliteal / Tarsal