Test 2

  1. What are Flavanoids?
    Plant Chemicals found in red wine, red grapes, grape juice, dark chocolate, and brightly-colored fruits and vegetables
  2. Describe Sardinia's Food Pyramid.
    • Meats (monthly)
    • Sweets, Poultry, Eggs and Fish (Weekly)
    • Daily Physical Activity (Daily)
    • Breads, Pasta, and Grains
    • Fruits & Vegetables
    • Olive Oil
    • Beans & Legumes
    • 6 glasses of water; wine in moderation
  3. Describe Sardinians' importance in family.
    • Older people have a big advantage in a society that values its elders
    • Social value in reciprocity
  4. What are the three kinds of social support?
    • Instrumental (Aid, Physical Help)
    • Emotional Support (Listening, "being there")
    • Affirmation or Agreement (Holding similar beliefs)
  5. What are Sardinians' stance on walking?
    • Walking 5 miles a day or more is common
    • Equal to about 10,000 steps using a pedometer or step counter
  6. What are Sardinians' stance on laughter?
    —produces psychological and physiological effects on the body that are similar to health benefits of aerobic exercise
  7. What are the eight psychological effects of laughter?
    • Reduces anxiety
    • Reduces tension
    • —Reduces stress
    • Reduces depression
    • Reduces loneliness
    • Improves self-esteem
    • Restores hope and energy
    • Provides a sense of empowerment and control
  8. What are the major blue zone lessons for Sardinia?
    • Eat a lean, plant-based diet accented with meat
    • Put family first
    • Drink goat’s milk
    • Celebrate elders
    • Take a walk
    • —Laugh with friends
  9. What records do Okinawians hold?
    • The longest documented life expectancy
    • 86 (women)
    • 78 (men)
    • Highest concentration of centerarians 5/10,000
  10. What is an acute care model?
    —Spend little on prevention but 13% of all Medicare funds are spend in the last 60 days of life
  11. Describe the Okinawans' diet.
    • low-calorie, low-fat, plant-based complex carbohydrate diet
    • “hara hachi bu”
    • portion control
  12. What is hara hachi-bu?
    You stop eating when you are 80% full
  13. What are the portions in Okinawa compared to the U.S?
    1/2 of those compared to the U.S.
  14. Describe the macronutrients of the Okinawans' diet.
    • High carbohydrate
    • (55%-60%) complex, low-glycemic index vegetables and grains
    • Moderate protein (19%)
    • Emphasis on vegetable protein (soy—tofu and miso)
    • Low fat (26%)
    • 14% monounsaturated,
    • 5% polyunsaturated
    • 7% saturated
  15. Describe the Micronutrients/Phytochemicals in the Okinawans' diet?
    • Rich in vitamins and minerals, including calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin E
    • Tofu, seaweed, fish, mushrooms
  16. Describe the flavanoid intake in Okinawans' diet.
    • Very high in flavonoid intake, blood levels
    • of flavonoids 40 times those of
    • U.S. residents and highest lycopene intake in Japan
    • Soy foods, onions, tea, watermelon, sweet potatoes, herbs used in cooking
  17. What are some examples of soy products?
    • edamame
    • tofu
    • soy milk
    • soy flour
    • Tempeh
    • miso
    • soy nuts
    • soy meat analogs
    • textured soy protein
  18. What are some facts about soy?
    • Tofu (Chinese for dou fu or bean curd)
    • Made from soybeans by adding a curdling agent to soy milk
    • Curd can contain different ratio of water to soybeans
    • Highly perishable (like milk)
  19. What are the benefits of soy?
    • High-quality protein source
    • Low in saturated fat
    • Contains plant compounds called isoflavones (phytoestrogens) which act as weak estrogens
    • May have anticancer functions
    • May relieve menopausal symptoms
    • —Lowers blood cholesterol levels
    • May reduce risk of heart disease, certain cancers
  20. Name the dirty dozen.
  21. 1.Peaches
    • 2.Apples
    • 3.Bell Peppers
    • 4.Celery
    • 5.Nectarines
    • 6.Strawberries
    • 7.Cherries
    • 8.Lettuce
    • 9.Imported Grapes
    • 10.Pears
    • 11.Carrots
    • 12.Kale
  22. Name the Clean Fifteen.
    • 1.Onions
    • 2.Avocado
    • 3.Sweet corn
    • 4.Pineapple
    • 5.Mango
    • 6.Asparagus
    • 7.Sweet peas
    • 8.Kiwi
    • 9.Cabbage
    • 10.Eggplant
    • 11.Papaya
    • 12.Watermelon
    • 13.Broccoli
    • 14.Tomato
    • 15.Sweet potato
  23. What are the longetivity lessons of the Okinawans?
    • Eat a plant-based diet
    • Eat more soy foods, like tofu and miso
    • Eat adequate vitamin D
    • Plant an organic garden, including herbs
    • Practice preventive health
    • Embrace an “ikigai”
    • Maintain a moai
    • Stay active
    • —Be likeable
  24. Why is Vitamin D called the "Sunshine Vitamin"?
    Called “Sunshine Vitamin” because vitamin D is made in the body with help of sunlight (UV)
  25. What are the finctions of Vitamin D?
    • Regulates two important bone minerals: calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P)
    • Stimulates intestinal absorption of Ca and P to maintain healthy blood levels and build and maintain bones
    • When dietary calcium is inadequate, Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone cause calcium to leave bones to maintain necessary blood levels.
    • May help prevent type 2 diabetes and some cancers
  26. Whata are some sources of Vitamin D?
    fortified milk and yogurt, fortified cereals, fatty fish (Examples: sardines, salmon, tuna)
Card Set
Test 2
Perspectives:Test 2