Nursing Fundamentals

  1. resistence of the body to infection where host receives natural or artificial antibodies produced by other source
    Passive (Acquired) Immunity
  2. resistence of body to infection where host produces its own antibodies in response to natural or artificial antigens
    Active Immunity
  3. infection that appears suddenly and lasts short amount of time
    Acute infection
  4. these are used to reduce exposure to infectious agents transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns (such as tuberculosis)
    airborne precautions
  5. immunoglobins part of the bodys plasma proteins which defend mostly against extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections
  6. a substance capable of inducing the formation of antibodies
  7. agents that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms
  8. freedom from infection or infectious material
  9. antigen that originates in a person's body
  10. bacteria in the blood
  11. the most common infection causing microorganisms
  12. microorganisms carried in blood n body fluids that are capable of infecting other persons with serious and difficult to treat viral infections like Hep B/C and HIV
    bloodborne pathogen
  13. generic infection control precautions for all clients except those w diseases transmitted thru air
    Body substance isolation (BSI)
  14. person or animal that harbors an infectious agent and serves as potential source of infection n doesn't manifest any clinical signs of disease
  15. immunity occuring thru T cell system
    cellular immunity
  16. infection that occurs slowly over a very long period of time and may last month or years
    chronic infection
  17. free of potentially infectious agents
  18. presence of organism in body secretions or excretions where strains of bacteria become resident flora but do not cause illness
  19. a disease that is spread from one person to another
    communicable disease
  20. any person at increased risk for infection
    compromised host
  21. lab cultivations of microorganisms in special growth medium
  22. denoted the likely presence of microorganisms which may be capable of causing infection
  23. an alteration in body function resulting in a reduction of capacities and shortening life span
  24. agebts that destroy pathogens other than spores
  25. residue of evaporated droplets that remains in the air for long periods of time
    droplet nuclei
  26. methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents transmitted by particle droplets larger than 5 microns
    droplet precautions
  27. developing from within
  28. developing from outside sources
  29. material such as fluid n cells that have escaped from blood vessels during the inflammatory process n is deposited in tissue or on tissue services
  30. infection causing microorganisms that include yeast and mold
  31. young connective tissue with new capillaries formed in the wound healing process
    granulation tissue
  32. antibody mediated defense resides in B lymphocytes n is mediated by antibodies produced by B cells
    Humoral immunity
  33. increased blood flow to an area
  34. infections that are the direct result of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures
    Iatrogenic infections
  35. specific resistance of body to infection; may be natural or produced by exposure
  36. the disease process produced by microorganisms
  37. local and nonspecific defense tissue response to injury or destruction of cells
  38. practice that prevents the spread of infection and communicable disease
  39. white blood cells
  40. an increased number of white blood cells
  41. an infection that is limited to a specific part of the body where microorganisms stay
    Local Infection
  42. practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area limiting number, growth and spread
    medical asepsis
  43. bodily defenses that protect against all microorganisms regardless to previous exposure
    Nonspecific defenses
  44. infections contracted thru health care services in healthcare facility
    Nosocomial Infections
  45. skin, eye, mucous membrane or parenteral contact w blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employees duties
    Occpational Exposure
  46. microorganism causing disease only in a suseptible individual
    Oppotunistic pathogen
  47. microorganisms that live in or on another from which it obtains nourishment
  48. a pathogens ability to produce disease
  49. renewal, regrowth or replacement of destroyed tissue cells by cells that are identical or similar in structure and function
  50. a source of microorganisms
  51. microorganisms that normally reside on the skin n mucous membranes and inside respiratory and GI tract
    Resident Flora
  52. the presence of pathogenic organismsor their toxins in the blood or body tissue
  53. occurs when bacteremia results in systemic infection
  54. immune functions directed against indentifiable bacteria, fungi, viruses or other infectious agents
    Specific defenses
  55. specified area considered free from microorganism
    Sterile field
  56. practiced that keep an area or object free of microorganism
    Sterile technique/ surgical asepsis
  57. a process that destroys all microorganisms including spores n viruses
  58. occurs when pathogens spread n damage different parts of body
    Systemic infections
  59. techniques to be used with all clients to prevent spread of germs
    Universal precautions
  60. animal or insect that serves as means of transportation of infectious agent
    vector-borne transmission
  61. any substance that serves as mean of transport n introduce infectious agent into a susceptable host thru suitable portal of entry
    Vehicle-borne transmission
  62. ability to produce disease
  63. nucleic acid-based infectious agents
  64. The following are resident microorganisms of what part of the body?
    Staphylococcus epidermis, propionibacterium acnes, staphylococcus aureus, corynebacterium xerosis, pityrosporum oxale (yeast)
  65. The Following are resident microorganisms to what part of the body?
    staphylococcus aureus & staphylococcus epidermis
    Nasal passages
  66. This resident microorganism is found where?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  67. The following resident microorganism are found where on the body?
    streptococcus mutans, lactobacillis, bacteroides, actinomyces
  68. These resident microorganisms are found where in the body?
    bactreroides, fusobacterium, eubacterium, lactobacillis, streptococcus, enterobacteriaceae, shigella, escheria coli
  69. this is normal microorganisms of what body part?
    staphylococcus epidermis
    urethral orifice
  70. Proteus is a resident microorganism of what body part?
    Lower Urethra
  71. Lactobacillus, bacteroides, clostridium and candida albicans are normal microorganisms of what body part
  72. if a microorganism produces no clinical evidence of disease it is called
    asymptomatic or subclinical
  73. what are the four major categories of microorganisms that cause disease?
    bacteria, viruses, fungi & parasites
  74. Most common cause of nosocomial infection in the ____________ are:
    e. coli, enterococcus species and pseudomonas aeruginosa
    and are due to improper catherization technique, contamination of closed drainage system and inadequate hand cleansing
    Urinary Tract
  75. The most common microorganisms that cause nosocomial infection on ________________ are:
    staphylococcus aerus (MRSA), enterococcus species (VRE) & pseudomonas aeuginosa
    and are due to inadequate hand cleansing, improper technique
    Surgical sites
  76. The most common causes of nosocomial infections in the ________ are:
    coagulase-negative, staphylococci, staphylococcus aerus & enterococcus species
    And are due to inadequate hand cleansing & improper site care
  77. The most common cause of nosocomial infections resulting in ___________ are:
    staphylococcus aereus, pseudomonas aeruginosa & enterobacter species
    And are due to inadequate hand cleansing and improper technique
  78. What is the order of the chain of infection?

    "Entering reservation portal method portrays susceptibility"

    E R P M P S
    Etiologic agent (microorganism), Reservoir (source), Portal of exit from reservoir, method of transmission, portal of entry to host, susceptible host
  79. What are the five signs of inflammation?
    pain, swelling, heat, redness and impaired function
  80. What is the first stage of inflammatory response?
    Vascullar and cellular response
  81. What is the second stage of inflammatory response?
    Exudate process
  82. What is the third stage of inflammatory process?
    reparative phase
  83. what is the normal range for leukocytes in the body?
    4,500 to 11,000 per cubic milliliter of blood.
  84. What are the 3 major types of exudate?
    serous, purulent and sanguineous/hemorophagic
  85. What tissues have little regenerative capacity?
    Nervous, muscular, and elastic tissues
  86. When regeneration is not possible repair occurs by ______________________?
    fibrous (scar) tissue formation
  87. What are the three main T cell groups?
    • Helper T cells: help the function of the immune system
    • Cytotoxic T cells: attack n kill microorganisms n sometimes body's own cells
    • Suppressor T cells: can suppress the functions of the helper n cytotocic t cells
  88. C. difficile is an infection of the colon n is almost always caused by?
    Treatment with an antibiotic for another infection
  89. What are the 4 strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings?
    preventing infection, diagnosing and treating infection effectively, using antimicrobials wisely and preventing transmission
  90. What are the measures to reduce a person's susceptability to infection?
    Hygiene, nutrition, fluid, sleep, stress and immuniztions
  91. Macrolide Antibiotics prevent bacteria from growing by interfering w their ability to make proteins. What is its brand and generic name?
  92. 4 methods of sterilization are?
    Moist heat (steam), Gas, Boiling water and radiation
  93. The client is a chronic carrier of infection. To prevent the spread of infection what intervention does the nurse emphasize?

    C. Block the portal of exit from the reservoir
  94. The most effective action for controlling infections, includes which of the following?

    D. Thorough hand cleansing
  95. In caring for a client on contact precautions for a draining infected foot ulcer the nnurse should perform which of the following?

    C. Follow standard precautions in all interactions with client
  96. When caring for the same client which can you resuse?

    A. Goggles
  97. blow from blunt instrument (closed wound/bruised skin)
  98. Open wound deep or shallow caused by sharp instrument
  99. Open wound like a surfrace scrap
  100. Open wound; penetration of the skin and the underlying tissue by a sharp instrument
  101. Open wound; edges are jagged; tissues torn apart often by accidents
  102. Open, penetration of the skin and underlying tissue
    Penetrating wound
  103. a lesion caused by unrelieved pressure
    pressure ulcer/ decubitus ulcer
  104. When pressure is relieved, the skin takes on a bright red flush and is called...
    reactive hyperemia
  105. a process in which extra blood floods to the area to compensate for the preceding period od impeded blood flow is called
  106. a force acting paralell to the skin surface
  107. a combination of friction and pressure
    shearing force
  108. tissue softened by prolonged wetting or soaking
  109. The ______________ is initiated immediately after injury and lasts 3 to 6 days; hemostasis and phagocytosis occur here.
    inflammatory phase
  110. What are the stages of wound healing?
    inflammatory, proliferation and maturation/remodeling
  111. The __________ phase occurs from day 4 to day 21 where fibroblasts migrate to the wound and start to synthesize collagen
  112. a whitish protein that adds tensile strength to the wound
  113. This phase begins at day 21 and extends for a year or more after injury.
    Maturation phase
  114. a blister has this type of exudate it has few cells and is clear
  115. _________ has pus , dead debri n bacteria
    purulent exudate
  116. The process of pus formation is called...
  117. the bacteria that produce pus are called
    pyogenic bacteria
  118. this exudate consists of large amounts of RBC, usually seen in open wounds
    sanguineous (hemorrhagic) exudate
  119. clear and blood tinged exudate commonly seen in surgical inscisions is called
  120. discharge consisting of blood n pus seen in infected new wounds is called...
  121. a localized collection of blood underneath the skin that may appear as a bruise is called
  122. black, brown or tan tissue that adheres firmly to the wound bed or ulcer edges and may either be firmer or softer than surrounding skin
    Necrotic tissue or Eschar
  123. yellow or white tissue that adheres to the ulcer bed in strings or thick clumps or is mucinous
  124. pink or beefy red tissue with a shiny tissue most and granular in appearence
    Granulation Tissue
  125. for superficial ulcers new pink or shiny tissue that grows in from the edges or as islands on the ulcer surface
    Epithelial tissue
  126. the wound is completely covered with new skin
    closed/ resurfaced
  127. partial or total rupturing of a sutured wound
  128. the protrusion of the internal viscera thru an inscision
  129. removal of necrotic material, tissue or body part
  130. a moist gauze dressing applied to a wound
  131. the perioperative period encompasses what three phases?
    preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative
  132. This phase begins when decision to have surgery is made and ends when client is transferred to operating table
    preoperative phase
  133. this phase begins when the client is transferred onto the operating table and ends when the client is admited to the PACU
    intraoperative phase
  134. this phase begins w the admission of patient to postanesthesia area and ends when healing is complete
    postoperative phase
  135. this surgery is performed immediately to preserve function or life
    emergency surgery
  136. this surgery is performed when surgical intervention is preferred treatment for condition
    Elective surgery
  137. this surgery involves a high degree of risk
    major surgery
  138. this surgery involves little risk and produces few complications
    Minor surgery
  139. what are the five reasons for surgical procedures?
    Diagnostic, palliative, ablative, constructive and transplant
  140. this surgery confirms or establishes diagnosis
    Diagnostic surgery
  141. this surgery reduces or relieves pain or symptoms of disease
    Palliative surgery
  142. this type of surgery removes a diseased body part (like gallbladder removal)
    Ablative surgery
  143. this type of surgery restores function or appearence that has been lost or reduced like breast implant
    Constructive surgery
  144. this surgery replaces malfunctioning structures like kidney transplant
    Transplant surgery
  145. This vitamin promotes epiltheliazation and enhances collagen synthesis
    Vitamin A
  146. This vitamin is a cofactor of the enzyme system
    Vitamin B complex
  147. This vitamin is essential for collagen synthesis affecting wound tensile strength
    Vitamin C ( ascorbic acid )
  148. This vitamin is essential in the synthesis of prothrombin and thus coagulation
    Vitamin K
  149. These three vitamins are also involved in collagen synthesis
    Iron, zinc and copper
  150. What are the routine perioperative screening tests
    CBC, Blood grouping and cross matching, serum electrolytes, fasting blood glucose, BUN, ALT, AST, LDH, billirubin, serum albumin, total protein, urinalysis, chest xray, ECG (over 40) and pregnancy test
  151. what are medications that are commonly used preoperatively?
    -sedatives and tranquillizer, - narcotic analgesics, - anticholinergics, - histamine receptor antihistamines and neuroleptanalgesic
  152. stationary clot adhered to the wall of a vessel
  153. inflammation of a vein followed by formation of blood clot
  154. a blood clot that has moved
  155. collapse of the alveoli in the lungs
  156. What forms the respiratory membrane
    alveolar and capillary walls
  157. pressure in the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs
    intrapleural pressure
  158. pressure within the lungs
    intrapulmonary pressure
  159. the expansibility or stretchability of lung tissue
    lung compliance
  160. the continual tendency of the lungs to collapse away from the chest wall
    lung recoil
  161. a lipoprotein produced by aveolar cells that acts like detergant reducing surface tension of aveolar fluid in lungs
  162. the pressure exerted by each individual gas in a mixture according to its concentration in the mixture
    partial pressure
  163. what factors affect the rate of oxygen transport from the lungs to the tissues?
    1. Caridac output, 2. Number of erythrocytes and blood hematocrit, 3. Excercise
  164. accumulated carbon dioxide in the blood is called
  165. the drainage by gravity of secretions from various lung segments is called
    postural drainage
  166. when air collects in the pleural space is known as
  167. blood or fluid in the pleural space that places pressure on lung tissue n intereferes w lung expansion
Card Set
Nursing Fundamentals
Chapter 31, 36,37,50 &51