HIM 280 Chapters 1-3

  1. Asthma
    - Description
    - Symptoms and Signs
    - Patient Screening
    - Etiology
    - Diagnosis
    - Treatment
    - Prognosis
    - Prevention
    - Patient Teaching
    • -
    • -
    • -
    • -
    • -
    • - Medication to relax
  2. Infantile colic
    • - Intermittent abdominal distress
    • - Infant draws up legs, clenches fists, cries as if in pain
    • -
  3. Helminth (worm) infestation
    • - Infestation of gastrointestinal tract
    • - Roundworms, pinworms, hookworms, and tapeworms
    • - Intense irritation in intestinal area
    • - Using clear adhesive tape over the perianal area or using a stool specimen
    • - Anthelmic agents, frequent showering, hand washing
    • - Must treat entire family for best cure and future prevention
  4. Diarrhea
    - Etiology
    - Symptoms
    - Diagnosis
    - Treatment
    • - Viral, bacterial, or parasitic, medications, emotions, allergic reactions, etc.
    • - Intestinal cramping, nausea, fever
    • - Test stool specimen, conduct CBC (complete blood count), electrolyte (sodium, potassium, chloride) count
    • - restrict oral intake to rest intestinal tract; when infection is the cause, antibiotics
  5. Vomiting
    • mild regurgitation to projectile expulsion, distended abdomen
    • - most vomiting abates spontaneously, withholding food
    • - aspiration of vomitus into the lungs
    • - antiemetic medications may be prescribed
    • - Dramamine, Emetrol
  6. Anemia
    • - Abnormal reduction in the concentration of red blood cells (RBC) and/or hemoglobin content
    • - RBC (Red Blood Count)
    • - Measurement of the oxygen carrying pigment of the RBC
    • - Iron deficiency, acute or chronic blood loss, nutritional deficiency, sickle cell disease, bone marrow inhibition, and hemolytic diseases
    • - varies depending on underlying cause
    • - Weakness, fatigue, and pallor; Palpitations, tachycardia, and cardiac enlargement; Jaundice; Mental sluggishness; Listlessness
  7. Leukemia
    • - Cancer of blood-forming tissues
    • - abnormal increase in immature white blood cells
    • - White blood cell count (WBC) with differential will be performed to count the percetages of cells in each maturation stage
    • - increased susceptibility to infections
    • - Prolonged bleeding time due to decreased platelet production
    • - Bone marrow infiltration of leukemic cells results in decreased red blood cells (anemia)
  8. Erythroblastosis fetalis (107-108)
    • - Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    • - This comes from an incompatibility of fetal and maternal blood, resulting in excessive rates of RBC destruction
    • - Rh factor incompatibility: Rh+fetus, Rh-mother (**Mother MUST be negative)
    • - Antibodies transferred from maternal circulation to fetal circulation
    • - Excessive rates of RBC destruction
    • - Exchange blood transfusions; albumin infusions; photo therapy; Give Rh-women RhoGam shots immediately after delivery to prevent the production of the antibody for safe future pregnancies.
  9. Lead Poisoning (109)
    - Children exposed to toxic levels may show:
    - Screening signs include:
    • - Vomiting, irritability, loss of appetite, and ataxic gait; Chronic anemia, colic, weakness, peripheral neuritis, or mental retardation
    • - Headaches, irritability, fatigue, behavior change, and stomach, muscle, and/or joint pain
  10. Reye Syndrome
    • - Combination of brain disease and fatty invasion of inner organs, especially the liver
    • - Unknown
    • - lethargy, vomiting, hyperventilation, organ changes, coma, seizures
    • - Hospitalization to stabilize patient; mortality rate of
  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • - Birth defects in infants whose mothers ingested large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy
    • - Below average birth weight and length; Smaller head size; smaller eye openings with
  12. Diaper Rash
    • - Contact dermatitis of the area covered by diaper. Can be mild or severe
    • - Frequent diaper changes, proper cleaning and drying of the area, use of zinc oxide
  13. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (124)
    - Caused by:
    - Diagnosis
    - What is does
    - How you get it
    - Treatment
    - Opportunistic diseases
    - Universal Precautions
    • - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • - Presence of HIV antibodies in the blood (common test: ELISA; confirmation: Western blot)
    • - HIV attacks helper T lymphocytes; Reduces cell-mediated immunity; Attacks nervous system directly
    • - HIV transmission is through direct contact with blood or semen of infected person (sexual contact, blood transfusions and other blood products, contaminated shared needles (IV drug use, etc.), accidental needle sticks, to fetus via placenta or during birth process from infected mother or through infected maternal milk
    • - Highly active antiviral therapy (HART), many drug combinations can be used, drug toxicity and side effects exist, prophylactic antibiotics, currently no cure
    • - Kaposi's sarcoma, Perineal herpes, Hairy leukoplakia, meningitis, encephalitis, AIDS dementia, Herpes labialis, Thrush, pneumonia, malabsorption,
    • - Thorough and frequent hand washing; personal protective equipment worn as required by specific task (e.g. gloves, gown, goggles, mask); proper disposal of all sharps in designated biohazard containers; no needle recap prior to disposal; caution in handling of laboratory specimens; proper containment and disinfection of blood and body fluid spills;
  14. Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia (CVID)
    • - History of repeated and chronic infections and poor response to vaccines
    • - Lab tests showing low levels of gammaglobulin and IgA deficiency
    • - to prevent infections
  15. DiGeorge's Syndrome
  16. Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis
    - Persistent and recurrent candidal (fungal) infections of the skin
  17. Wiskott-Aldrick Syndrome
    • - Congenital disorder showing inadequate B and T cell function
    • - Has eczema, thrombocytopenia with severe bleeding
  18. Pernicious Anemia (135)
    • - Impaired absorption of B12 and B12 deficiency due to decreased gastric production of hydrochloric acid and shortage of intrinsic factor
    • - monthly intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 during the person's entire lifetime
  19. Hemolytic Anemia
    • - Red blood cells are destroyed by antibodies
    • - fatigue, weakness, chills, fever, dyspnea, itching, jaundice, hypotensive
    • - a
  20. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
    • - Acquired disorder showing a deficiency of platelets when all other blood counts are normal
    • - blood does not clot properly allowing spontaneous hemorrhages in the skin, mucous membranes, or internal organs. Epistaxis (nosebleeds), GI bleeds, petechiae, and exxhymoses are common
    • - Corticosteriods, IV immunoglobulin, blood transfusions,
  21. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
    • - Inflammation of the skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs
    • - Butterfly rash across face, alopecia, photosensitivity, Raynaud's phenomenon, thrombocytopenia, discoid skin lesion, nasopharyngeal ulceration, polyarthritis, pleuritis or
Card Set
HIM 280 Chapters 1-3
Test 1