1. Hull
    The body of the boat
  2. Monohull
    Single hulled boat
  3. Multihull
    Boat with multiple hulls
  4. Catamaran
    Boat with two hulls
  5. Trimaran
    Boat with three hulls
  6. Bow
    The front of the hull. In most boats this is pointed
  7. Stern
    The back of the hull
  8. Transom
    The wide, flat, vertical surface of the stern
  9. Pram
    A short (less than 10') sailboat with a squared-off bow
  10. The Optimist
    A small pram for training young people
  11. The Sabot
    A small pram for training young people
  12. Displacement
    The volume of water the boat occupies, equal to its weight
  13. Waterline
    An imaginary line circumscribing the hull that matches the surface of the water when the hull is not moving
  14. Centerboard
    An underwater fin that pivots up and down and helps prevent the boat from slipping sideways through the water
  15. Daggerboard
    An underwater fin that can be raised vertically and helps prevent the boat from slipping sideways through the water
  16. Leeboard
    A centerboard attached to the side of the boat
  17. Keel
    A fixed fin that provides ballast for stability as well as preventing the boat from slipping sideways through the water
  18. Rudder
    A fin used to steer the boat
  19. Tiller
    An arm used to control the rudder
  20. Tiller extension
    An arm used to extend the tiller so the helmsman can reach more of the boat while retaining control of the rudder
  21. Pintle
    A pin or bolt inserted into a gudgeon to hold the rudder in place
  22. Gudgeon
    A circular fitting that accepts a pintle and holds the rudder to the boat
  23. What part of the boat is this?
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    The hull
  24. What is the job of the keel?
    Provides ballast, stability, and prevents the boat from sliding through the water sideways
  25. What kind of boats use a movable keel?
  26. What kind of moveable keel pivots?
  27. What kind of moveable keel slides up and down?
  28. What controls the rudder in a dinghy?
    The tiller
  29. What is the name of the person who steers the boat?
    The helmsman
  30. It is comprised of the mast, boom and one or more sail(s)
    The rig
  31. What is the rig's job?
    To harness the wind and convert its force into drive to push the boat forward
  32. What is the name of the system of wires that support the mast?
    Standing rigging
  33. What is the name of the ropes that hoist and control the sails?
    Running rigging
  34. What are the pulleys and pulley systems knows as?
    Blocks and tackles
  35. What is the left side of the boat called?
  36. What is the right side of the boat called?
  37. What is the back of the boat called?
  38. What is the flat, vertical surface of the stern called?
  39. In small boats the length of wood or aluminium used to control the angle of the rudder
  40. The large triangular sail set behind the mast.
  41. A triangular sail at the front of the boat- attached to the bow and hoisted in front of the mast.
  42. A wire that runs from the bow to the mast to support the mast.
  43. The upright pole that supports the sails
  44. Wires on the port and starbord sides that support the mast
  45. Horizontal pole to which the foot of the mainsail is attached
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  47. They are used to hoist the sails; they exit the mast near the bottom.
  48. The rope used to pull in or let out the mainsail.
  49. Top corner of the sail
  50. Aft edge of the sail
  51. Bottom forward corner of the sail
  52. Front leading edge of the sail
  53. Bottom edge of the sail
  54. Bottom aft of the sail
  55. Additional curved area on the leach of the sail, outside a straight line from the head to the clew
  56. Rope that adjusts tension in the mainsail foot
  57. Away from the wind, downwind
    Leeward (pronounced lew-ard)
  58. Towards the wind, upwind
  59. Behind the boat
  60. In front of the boat
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  71. Name two lines on a sailboat that are part of the standing rigging
    Forestay, backstay
  72. Name the three corners of a triangular sail
    Clockwise from top: Head, tack, clew
  73. Name the three sides of a triangular sale
    Clockwise from front: luff, foot, leech
  74. Name three things that may help you identify wind direction
    Flags, smoke, feel of wind on your face and hair, wind ripples on the water, boats swinging on moorings
  75. When you are sailing, are you feeling true or apparent wind?
    Apparent wind
  76. Apparent wind
    The combination of true wind and the wind generated by the forward motion of the boat.
  77. In what direction should a boat be pointed when raising the sail?
    Into the wind.
  78. What are halyards used for?
    To raise or lower a sail.
  79. What are sheets used for?
    A line to pull in or let out a sail.
  80. To turn a boat into the wind, should you push or pull the tiller?
  81. What is the best knot to use as a stopper in the end of a jib sheet
    Figure-8 stopper knot
  82. What is the "glide" distance of a boat?
    The distance a sailboat takes to come to a stop after turning into the no-go zone or letting out all the sails.
  83. What is the best action to take if you are approaching a dock with too much speed?
    Push the tiller toward the dock, turn around, and try again.
  84. What are the five points of sail?
    Close hauled (beating), close reach, beam reach, broad reach, run
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  91. Does a boat on a port tack or a starboard tack have the right of way?
    Starboard tack
  92. Does a power boat or a sailboat have the right of way? What are the exceptions?
    • A sailboat
    • Exceptions are: a large powered vessel in a small channel, a vessel under tow, or when a sailboat is under motorized power
  93. What are the three commands used during a tacking maneuver?
    • Skipper: "Ready to come about" or "Ready about"
    • Crew: "Ready"
    • Skipper: "Helms a lee" or "Go"
  94. Describe the steps of a tacking maneuver
    • Ensure the area in front of the boat is clear
    • Ensure you have sufficient forward speed to make the turn
    • Move the tiller 45 degrees (half way) toward the sail
    • As the boom crosses thee boat, step across the boat facing forward
    • Reach sheet hand (still holding the sheet) behind back and grab the tiller, trapping the main sheet on the tiller
    • Turn body and take main sheet with empty hand
    • Adjust heading, center tiller, and adjust sail for new tack.
  95. Name three of the crew's responsibilities
    • Balancing the boat
    • Trimming the job by tending the jib sheets
    • Maintain a lookout
    • Notify the skipper if the jib is luffing
    • Any Skipper requests
  96. What are some of the actions that could cause a boat to capsize?
    • Sudden, unexpected gust of wind
    • Turning too quickly in heavy wind
    • Poorly executed gybe
    • Letting go of the tiller or main sheet
    • Broken tiller or hiking strap
  97. What is the most important safety rule after capsizing?
    Stay with the boat
  98. How can you get a boat out of irons
    • For a catboat: Turn the sail and tiller in the direction you wish to sail. When the wind is coming across the beam, center the tiller and sheet the sail.
    • For a sloop: Back the jib to the side of the boat opposite the direction you want to sail. When the boat comes off center, change the jib to the same side of the boat as the mainsail
  99. What are the three commands of a jibing maneuver?
    • Skipper: "Prepare to jibe"
    • Crew: "Ready"
    • Skipper: "Jibe ho" or "Ok"
  100. What is an accidental jibe?
    When the wind shifts or the stern of the boat unexpectedly passes through the eye of the wind causing the boom to swing violently to the other side of the boat.
  101. When it might not be safe to jibe, what other options do you have?
  102. What does the mainsheet do?
    The mainsheet is used to trim the mainsail
  103. What does the rudder do?
    The rudder is used to steer the boat
  104. What does the tiller/wheel do?
    It controls the turn of the rudder.
  105. What does the boomvang do?
    It's used to keep the boom from rising up under pressure and also pulls down on the foot of the sail to tighten up the mainsail in high winds.
  106. What is the boom topping lift?
    The boom topping lift is used to support the boom when the sail is lowered.
  107. What is a jib sheet?
    Jib sheets are used to control the shape of the jib.
  108. What is a halyard?
    A halyard is a line used to raise and lower a sail.
  109. What is a winch?
    A winch is a device that provides a mechanical advantage for pulling in a line under pressure.
  110. What is a fairlead?
    A fairlead is a device used to guide a line (or lead) to keep it from getting tangled (keep it fair). A tangled lead is called "fouled". A fairlead keeps a lead fair.
  111. What is a padeye?
    A padeye is a device that can be used as an attachment point or a fairlead for very shallow angles. It is usually attached to a deck or a spar.
  112. What is a downhaul?
    A downhaul is line which exerts downward force on a spar or a sail. The Cunningham is a downhaul on the mainsail.
  113. What is an outhaul?
    The outhaul is used to pull the sail back to tighten it up in light winds.
  114. What is the cunningham?
    The cunningham is a downhaul on the tack of the sail that changes the shape of the mainsail.
  115. What are stays or shrouds?
    Shrouds are pieces of the standing rigging which hold up the mast from side to side.
  116. What is a shackle?
    A shackle is a u-shaped piece of metal secured with a clevis pin across the opening. They are used for connecting pieces of rigging.
  117. What are telltails?
    Telltails are cloth or fabric indicator affixed to a sail which indicate correct or incorrect air flow. They are used when trimming the sail.
  118. What is a spring line?
    A spring line is a mooring line used to keep the boat from moving forward or backwards when moored or to aid in swinging away from the dock when departing. A spring line that attaches to the bow is an aft spring line as it pulls the bow backwards. A spring line that attaches to the stern is a fore spring line as it pulls the stern forward.
  119. What is a breast line?
    A breast line is used to hold the boat close to the pier. It runs perpendicular to the dock.
  120. What are fenders?
    Fenders are cushions to keep the boat from making contact with the dock.
  121. What are cleats?
    Cleats are fixtures that are used to prevent a line from releasing.
  122. Define port.
    Port is the left side of the boat facing the bow.
  123. Define starboard.
    Starboard is the right side of the boat facing the bow.
  124. Define skipper.
    The skipper is the captain of the boat; the person in charge of the vessel, its crew, and passengers.
  125. Define helmsman.
    Helmsman is the person steering the boat.
  126. Define crew.
    Crew is someone other than the skipper charged with the operation of the boat.
  127. Define forward.
    Toward the bow of the boat.
  128. Define aft.
    Toward the stern of the boat.
  129. Define coming about.
    Coming about is a tacking maneuver when the bow of the boat makes a turn through the eye of the wind.
  130. Define gybing.
    A gybe is a turning maneuver in which the stern of the boat passes through the eye of the wind.
  131. Define running rigging.
    Running rigging is the rigging used for raising, lowering, and controlling the sails.
  132. Define standing rigging.
    Standing rigging is the term for the rigging lines or wires that support the mast(s) and keep it in place.
  133. Define heel.
    Heel means that the boat is leaning under the force of the wind.
  134. Define ahead.
    Ahead means off the bow of the boat.
  135. Define abeam.
    Abeam means toward the beam or side of the boat.
  136. Define astern.
    Astern means behind the boat.
  137. Define windward.
    Windward is the side of the boat the wind is approaching from.
  138. Define leeward.
    Leeward is the side of the boat opposite the direction the wind is coming from.
  139. Define beam.
    Beam is width of the boat at its widest point.
  140. Define abaft
    Toward the stern.
  141. Define abeam
    At right angles to the centerline of a boat.
  142. Define aboard
    On or in a boat: close to a boat. aft, after Toward the stern.
  143. Define aground
    With the hull or keel of a boat touching the bottom.
  144. Define aloft
  145. Define amidships
    Between fore and aft; the middle of the boat.
  146. Define anchor
    A device shaped so as to grip the
  147. Define bottom
    It is secured to a line from the boat to hold it in the desired position.
  148. Define astern
    Behind the stern of a boat.
  149. Define athwartships
    Across the beam of a boat.
  150. Define awash
    Immersed in water.
  151. Define backstay
    A wire support from the mast to the stern of the boat.
  152. Define bail
    To remove water from the boat.
  153. Define ballast
    Weight placed in the bottom of the boat to give it stability.
  154. Define bare poles
    With all sails down.
  155. Define battens
    Thin wooden or plastic strips placed in pockets in the leech of a sail to help hold its form.
  156. Define beam
    The width of a boat at its widest point.
  157. Define beam wind
    A wind that blows across the boat from side to side.
  158. Define bearing
    The compass (magnetic) direction from one object to another.
  159. Define beat
    To sail to windward.
  160. Define belay
    To make secure.
  161. Define bend
    To secure (for example, a sail to a spar or a line to a sail).
  162. Define bight
  163. Define bilge
    The very lowest part of a boats interior, where water is most likely to collect.
  164. Define blanket
    To take wind from a sail
  165. Define block
    A nautical pulley.
  166. Define boat hook
    A device for catching hold of a ring bolt or line when coming alongside a pier or picking up a mooring.
  167. Define bolt rope
    Rope secured to the edge of a sail to give it strength and to facilitate adjusting foot and luff tension.
  168. Define boom
    The spar to which the foot of the sail is attached with lacing, slides, or a groove.
  169. Define boom vang
    A line to steady the boom when off the wind.
  170. Define bow
    Forward part of the boat.
  171. Define bowsprit
    A spar extending forward from the bow.
  172. Define breast line
    Docking line leading roughly at right angles from the boats sides.
  173. Define bridle
    Rope span with ends secured for the sheet block to ride on.
  174. Define broach
    To spin out of control and capsize or come close to a capsize; loss of steering.
  175. Define buoy
    Any floating object anchored in one place to mark a position or provide a mooring.
  176. Define by the lee
    On a run, having the wind coming slightly from the side on which the sails are trimmed.
  177. Define can
    A buoy, used to mark a channel, colored green or black and given an odd number.
  178. Define capsize
    To tip over.
  179. Define careen
    To place a boat on her side so that work may be carried out on her underwater parts.
  180. Define carry away
    To break or tear loose.
  181. Define cast off
    To let go of a line when leaving the dock or mooring; to ease sheets.
  182. Define catboat
    A sailboat with a single sail.
  183. Define centerboard
    A shaped blade attached to the underside of the hull to give the boat lateral resistance when it is sailing to windward.
  184. Define chafe
    To damage a line by rubbing.
  185. Define chainplates
    Metal plates bolted to the side of a boat to which shrouds are attached to support the rigging.
  186. Define chock
    A device affixed to the deck and used as a guide for an anchor or mooring line.
  187. Define claw off
    To clear a lee shore.
  188. Define cleat
    A fitting used to secure a line under strain.
  189. Define clew
    The outer corner of a sail.
  190. Define close-hauled
    The most windward point of sail, on which the wind is at about 45 degrees.
  191. Define close-winded
    Describes a craft capable of sailing very close to the wind.
  192. Define coaming
    The raised protection around a cockpit.
  193. Define cockpit
    The space at a lower level than the deck in which the tiller or wheel is located; a cockpit may he center or aft.
  194. Define cringle
    A metal ring worked into the sail.
  195. Define crutch
    Support for the boom when the sails are furled.
  196. Define displacement
    The weight of water displaced by a boat.
  197. Define dock
    The body of waler in which the boat sits while tied up to a float or pier (often used to mean the float or pier itself).
  198. Define downhaul
    A line attached to the tack of the sail, used to trim the draft forward.
  199. Define draft
    1) The depth or fullness of a sail. 2) The depth of the keel or centerboard in the water.
  200. Define drift
    The leeway or movement sideways of a boat.
  201. Define dry sailing
    Keeping a boat out of water when not in use.
  202. Define ease
    To let out.
  203. Define fairlead
    A fitting used to change the direction of a line, giving it a better angle from a sail or block to a winch or cleat.
  204. Define fall
    The part of a tackle to which the power is applied in hoisting.
  205. Define fathom
    A nautical measurement for the depth of water. One fathom is equal to six feet.
  206. Define fetch
    A windward course by which a craft can make her destination without having to tack.
  207. Define float
    A floating platform, usually accessible from shore, to which a boat is tied up when docked.
  208. Define foot
    The bottom length of a sail. fore-and-aft in the direction of the keel, from front to back.
  209. Define forefoot
    The forward part of the keel, adjoining the lower part of the stem.
  210. Define foremast
    The most forward mast of a sailboat having two or more masts.
  211. Define foresail
    A jib.
  212. Define fouled
    Entangled or clogged.
  213. Define frames
    The skeleton of the ship, which holds the hull together and gives support.
  214. Define free
    Sailing on any point of sail except close-hauled.
  215. Define freeboard
    The distance from the top of the hull to the water.
  216. Define full-and-by
    Sailing as close to the wind as possible with all the sails full.
  217. Define furl
    To fold or roll a sail on a boom and then secure it with sail ties.
  218. Define gaff
    A pole extending from a mast to support the head of a sail.
  219. Define gasket
    A piece of rope or canvas used to secure a furled sail.
  220. Define gear
    Any equipment pertaining to a sailboat.
  221. Define genoa
    An overlapping foresail.
  222. Define gimbal
    A device used for suspending the compass so it remains level.
  223. Define give-way vessel
    A boat required to keep out of the way of another vessel.
  224. Define gooseneck
    A device that secures the boom to the mast.
  225. Define grommet
    A metal ring fastened in a sail.
  226. Define ground tackle
    Anchor, rode, etc., used to secure a boat to her mooring.
  227. Define gudgeon
    A fitting attached to the hull into which the rudders pintles are inserted.
  228. Define gunwale
    The rail of the boat at deck level.
  229. Define guy
    A line or wire used to adjust and position the spinnaker pole.
  230. Define halyard
    A line used to haul sails up and down the mast.
  231. Define hard alee
    The command used in coming about to inform the crew that the helm is being pushed hard to leeward, turning the boat into the wind.
  232. Define headstay
    A forward stay supporting the mast.
  233. Define headway
    Motion forward.
  234. Define heave to
    To stop a boat by turning the how to the wind and holding it there. A boat stopped this way is hove to.
  235. Define helm
    The tiller or wheel mechanism by which the boat is steered.
  236. Define hike
    To lean over the side of a boat to help counterbalance heeling.
  237. Define hoist
    The vertical edge of a sail; to haul aloft.
  238. Define hull
    The main body of the boat.
  239. Define inboard
    Toward the centerline of the boat: mounted inside the hull.
  240. Define in irons
    In the wind.s eye and having lost all headway. A boat in irons will not go off
  241. Define on either tack
    Also called in stays.
  242. Define jib
    A triangular sail set forward of the mainmast.
  243. Define jibe
    To change tack on a downwind course. A boat begins to jibe at the moment when, with the wind aft, the foot of her mainsail crosses her centerline. The boat completes the jibe when the mainsail fills on the new tack.
  244. Define jibstay
    A wire supporting the mast to which the luff of the jib is attached.
  245. Define jumper
    A stay on the upper forward part of the mast.
  246. Define keel
    A heavy fin filled with lead ballast under the hull. It prevents the boat from sideslipping by resisting the lateral force of the wind, and it gives the boat stability.
  247. Define ketch
    A two-masted sailing vessel with a small after mast stepped forward of the rudclerpo st.
  248. Define knot
    A nautical unit of speed: 6,076 feet or one nautical mile per hour.
  249. Define lanyard
    A line fastened to an object, such as a pail, whistle, knife, or other small tool
  250. Define leech
    The after edge of a sail.
  251. Define leeward
    Away from the wind (also lee).
  252. Define lifeline
    A wire that encircles the deck to prevent crew members from falling overboard.
  253. Define light sails
    Sails made of a lightweight material for use in light winds.
  254. Define list
    A leaning sideways due to excess weight on one side.
  255. Define locker
    A storage compartment on a boat. lubber.s line A short post inside a compass used as a reference point when steering or taking bearings.
  256. Define luff
    1) The forward vertical edge of a sail. 2) To alter course toward the wind until the boat is head to wind. 3) The flapping of a sail caused by the boat being head to wind.
  257. Define mainmast
    The principal mast of a sailboat.
  258. Define mainsail
    The largest regular sail on a modem sailboat.
  259. Define mainsheet
    The line for controlling the main boom.
  260. Define marconi
    A tall mast used with a jibheaded rig.
  261. Define mizzen
    The shorter mast aft on a yawl or ketch.
  262. Define mooring
    A heavy anchor or weight permanently in position.
  263. Define mooring buoy
    A buoy fitted with a ring and used for mooring a boat.
  264. Define nun
    A buoy with a conical top, found on the starboard hand on entering a channel and painted red. Nuns are numbered evenly.
  265. Define offshore
    Away from the shore.
  266. Define off the wind
    Sailing downwind or before the wind.
  267. Define on the wind
    Sailing close-hauled.
  268. Define outboard
    Away from the centerline of the boat; mounted on the stern.
  269. Define outhaul
    The line that pulls the mainsail away from the mast and tightens the foot of the sail along the boom.
  270. Define painter
    A short piece of rope secured to the bow of a small boat and used for making her fast to a dock.
  271. Define pay off
    To turn the bow away from the wind.
  272. Define peak
    The upper after corner of a gaff sail.
  273. Define pennant
    A three-sided flag.
  274. Define pinch
    To sail so close to the wind as to allow the sails to luff.
  275. Define pintle
    A bolt of metal secured to the rudder and fitting into the gudgeon. The pintle gives a swinging support to the rudder.
  276. Define point
    To head close to the wind.
  277. Define port
    The left side of a boat as one faces forward.
  278. Define port tack
    A course with the wind coming from the port and the sails trimmed on the starboard side.
  279. Define quarter
    That portion of a vessel.s side near the stern.
  280. Define rail
    The outer edge of the deck.
  281. Define rake
    The angle of a boat.s mast from the vertical.
  282. Define reach
    Sailing with a beam wind.
  283. Define ready about
    The command given to prepare for coming about.
  284. Define reef
    To reduce the area of a sail.
  285. Define rhumb line
    The straight-line compass course between two points; hence the shortest course, except over long distances, where the great circle course is shorter.
  286. Define rig
    1) In general, a boat's upper works. 2) To set up the spars and standing and running rigging of a sailboat.
  287. Define rigging
    The wire or lines used to adjust sails.
  288. Define roach
    The curve of the edge of the sail.
  289. Define rode
    The line and chain that secure the anchor to the boat.
  290. Define rudder
    A flat wooden shape fitted on the sternpost by pintles and gudgeons.
  291. Define run
    Point of sail with the wind aft.
  292. Define sail ties
    Lengths of webbing used to secure a furled sad to a boom.
  293. Define scull
    To move the rudder rapidly back and forth to propel the boat forward.
  294. Define seaway
    An area with rough or moderate waves.
  295. Define secure
    To make safe.
  296. Define set
    The direction of the leeway of a vessel or of tide or current.
  297. Define shackle
    A U-shaped piece of iron or steel with eyes in the ends, closed by a shackle pin.
  298. Define shake out
    To let out a reef and hoist the sail.
  299. Define sheave
    The wheel of a block pulley.
  300. Define sheet
    The line used to control the forward or athwartships movement of a sail.
  301. Define shrouds
    Vertical wires that hold the mast upright.
  302. Define skeg
    A continuation of the keel aft that protects the propeller and sometimes connects to the heel of the rudder.
  303. Define spinnaker
    A balloonlike sail used on a downwind course.
  304. Define splice
    To join rope by tucking the strands together.
  305. Define spreader
    An athwartships support that holds the shrouds away from the mast.
  306. Define spring line
    A line used when the boat is docked to keep her from moving forward and aft.
  307. Define squall
    A brief storm that arrives suddenly.
  308. Define stand-on vessel
    A vessel that maintains her course and speed.
  309. Define standing rigging
    That part of a ship.s rigging that is permanently secured and not movable (stays, shrouds, and spreaders).
  310. Define starboard
    The right side of a boat as one faces forward.
  311. Define starboard tack
    A course with the wind coming from the starboard and the sails trimmed on the port side.
  312. Define stay
    A rope of hemp, wire, or iron used for supporting a mast fore-and-aft.
  313. Define staysail
    A small triangular sail used forward of the mast on a reaching course.
  314. Define stem
    The timber at the extreme forward part of a boat, secured to the forward end of the keel and supporting the bow planks. step the frame into which the heel of a mast fits or stops.
  315. Define stern
    The after section of the boat.
  316. Define stow
    To put away.
  317. Define strake
    A row of planks in the hull.
  318. Define swamp
    To fill with water.
  319. Define tack
    1) The forward lower corner of a sail, where the luff and foot meet. 2) Any course on which the wind comes from either side of the boat. 3) To change course by passing into the wind.
  320. Define tackle
    An arrangement of ropes and blocks to give a mechanical advantage.
  321. Define tender
    1) A small boat employed to go back and forth to the shore from a larger boat. 2) Heeling easily when close-hauled.
  322. Define thimble
    An iron ring grooved on the outside for a rope grommet.
  323. Define thwart
    The athwartships seat in a boat.
  324. Define tiller
    Steering instrument that controls the rudder.
  325. Define topping lift
    1) A line or wire to hold the boom off the deck when not in use (also called a boom lift). 2) A line from the mast to the spinnaker pole, controlling spinnaker pole height.
  326. Define topside
    On deck.
  327. Define transom
    The stern facing of the hull.
  328. Define traveler
    A sliding fitting to which the mainsheet is attached, keeping the boom in the same place as it is moved in and out.
  329. Define trim
    1) To adjust the sails. 2) The position of the sails relative to the wind.
  330. Define tuning
    The delicate adjustment of a boat.s rigging, sails, and hull to the proper balance to assure the best sailing performance.
  331. Define turnbuckle
    A threaded link that pulls two eyes together, used for setting up standing rigging.
  332. Define veer
    A change of direction, as in the wind.
  333. Define wake
    The waves from a boat.
  334. Define waterline
    An imaginary line around the hull at the surface of the water when the boat is on an even keel.
  335. Define weather
    The state of the atmosphere at a certain time and place.
  336. Define well found
    Well equipped.
  337. Define whip
    To bind the strands of a line.s end with yam or cord.
  338. Define whisker pole
    A light spar extending from the mast and used to hold the jib out when sailing off the wind.
  339. Define winch
    A mechanical device to aid in trimming a line. It consists basically of a coil, on which the line is wound, and a crank to do the winding.
  340. Define windward
    Toward the wind, the opposite of leeward.
  341. Define wing-and-wing
    Running before the wind with the sails set on both sides.
  342. Define working sails
    The regular sails on a boat.
  343. Define yacht
    General term for a boat used solely for the personal pleasure of the owner.
  344. List the federally required equipment for a 33-foot recreational vessel equipped with an inboard diesel engine.
    • Coast Guard-approved PFD for each person aboard - readily available
    • 1 buoyant throwable device (life ring, cushion with straps, etc.) - immediately available
    • 1 sound signal (handheld air horn or athletic whistle)
    • Appropriate navigational lights required at night and in areas of restricted visibility
    • For all boats with installed toilets, a certified marine sanitation device such as a holding tank
    • For all boats built since July 1980, a rated power exhaust blower
    • An approved combination of day and night visual distress signals such as: (a) 3 combination day/night red flares (handheld, meteor, or parachute type), or (b) 1 orange distress flag (day) plus one electric
    • distress light (night), or (c) 3 handheld or floating orange smoke signals (day) plus one electric distress light or 3 flares (night)
    • An all-around white anchor light (required when anchored at night)
    • 2 fire extinguishers type B-I, or 1 type B-II fire extinguisher
  345. Describe the different types of Personal Flotation Devices (PFD, or Life Jackets), their characteristics and benefits.
    Type I - Offshore Lifejacket: Designed for extended survival in rough, open water. It usually will turn an unconscious person face up. 22 pounds of buoyancy.

    Type II - Near Shore Buoyant Vest: For calm inland water where there is chance of fast rescue. Many will turn an unconscious person face-up in the water. 15.5 pounds of buoyancy.

    Type III - Flotation Aid: For use in calm water where there is good chance of fast rescue. Will not right an unconscious person. 15.5 pounds of buoyancy.

    • Type IV - Throwable Device: Designed to be thrown to a person in the water. Include boat cushions, ring buoys, and horseshoe buoys. Not designed to be worn and must be supplemented by wearable PFD. Do not count for PFDs. Keep immediately available for emergencies,
    • and should not be used for small children, non-swimmers, or unconscious people.

    Type V - Special Use Device: Include work vests, deck suits, and hybrids for restricted use. Hybrid vests contain some internal buoyancy and are inflatable to provide additional flotation. Manufactured before 1995 must be worn to count for PFD per person. After 1995 must be accesible only.
  346. List the ASA recommended safety equipment for a recreational sailing vessel.
    • 2 Anchors with no less than 200 feet of cable
    • Bailer or manual bilge pump
    • Flashlight with extra batteries
    • First Aid kit
    • Tool kit and spare parts
    • Navigation charts and equipment
    • Soft wood plugs
    • VHF radio
    • Safety harness
    • Life buoys
    • Buoyant heaving line
    • Inflatable life raft
    • Rigid dinghy
    • Inflatble dinghy
    • Distress flares
    • Smoke signals
    • Tow rope
    • Water-resistant light
    • Fog horn
  347. Describe the purpose and proper use of a safety harness and tether.
    To keep a person on board by attaching the individual to a strong part of the boat: the base of a stanchion, the pupit or stern rail, or a safety line attached to deck cleats. Connect a safety or jackline from the cockpit to cleat on the bow.
  348. Describe the main responsibilities of the skipper and crew.
    The main responsibility of the skipper is the safety of the  crew and the safe operation of the vessel. The main responsiblity of the crew is to assist the skipper in the safe operation of the vessel.
  349. Describe the location, color and illumination angles of required navigation lights on a 33-foot recreational vessel at anchor
    360 degree white light
  350. Describe the location, color and illumination angles of required navigation lights on a 33-foot recreational vessel under sail
    • Red light on port visible for 22.5 degrees
    • Green light on starboard visible for 22.5 degrees
    • White stern light visible for 22.5 degrees.
  351. Describe the location, color and illumination angles of required navigation lights on a 33-foot recreational vessel under power
    • Red light on port visible for 22.5 degrees
    • Green light on starboard visible for 22.5 degrees
    • White stern light visible for 22.5 degrees.
    • White masthead light over the fore and aft centerline, visible 22.5 degrees ahead.
  352. Describe actions to be taken when operating a vessel in restricted visibility such as fog or haze including adaptation of speed and use of sound signals
    • Slow down
    • Keep a good lookout
    • Use sound signals
  353. Define one long blast
    Power vessel making way
  354. Define two long blasts
    Power vessel under way but not making way through water.
  355. Define one long and two short blasts.
    Vessel not under command or restricted in her ability to maneuver.
  356. Describe one long and three short blasts
    Vessel being towed.
  357. Describe four bells
    Vessel at anchor.
  358. Describe one short blast in inland waters
    Intent to leave the other boat to port.
  359. Describe two short blasts in inland water.
    Intent to leave the other boat to starboard.
  360. Describe three short blasts in inland waters.
    Used when you are operating in reverse.
  361. Describe five or more short blasts
    Disagreement with proposed signal.
  362. What is the response to one to three short blasts when you are in agreement and sailing in inland waters?
    Return the same number of blasts.
  363. Describe two methods for getting a person out of the water and safely back on board the vessel.
    • Ladder
    • Sling
    • Boson seat
    • Life buoys
    • Buoyant heaving line
  364. Describe the three stages of hypothermia; name symptoms and treatment for each.
    • Mild: Feeling cold, violent shivering, slurred speech. Wrap in a warm towel and give warm fluids.
    • Medium: Loss of muscular control, drowsiness, incoherence, stupor, and exhaustion. Share a sleeping bag. Do not try to administer fluids or rub the skin.
    • Severe: Collapse and unconsciousness, respiratory distress and or cardiac arrest. Same treatment as medium.
  365. Describe how to prevent undue magnetic influence on a compass.
    Use a plastic binnacle.
  366. Describe the appearance and purpose of the ‘Diver Down’ and ‘Alpha’ flags.
    • Alpha Flag: Half white, half blue pennant cut.
    • Diver Down: Red square with white stripe.
    • Meaning diver in the water, steer clear.
  367. Describe the dangers of, and how to avoid, a ‘Lee Shore.’
    Lee shore is when the shore is on the leeward side of the boat. The danger is if your anchor breaks free or drags you'll be blown ashore.
  368. Describe the appropriate sail combinations to carry under  light (0-11 knots) winds
    Mainsail and genoa.
  369. Describe the appropriate sail combinations to carry under moderate (12-19 knots) winds
    Mainsail and jib.
  370. Describe the appropriate sail combinations to carry under heavy (20-33 knots) winds
    Reefed mainsail and jib.
  371. Describe common anchor types
    • Danforth
    • Plow
    • Weighted
  372. Describe and identify Cumulonimbus clouds and what dangers they may signify
    Approaching cold front. Violent storms possible.
Card Set
Sailing terminology