EMTP 2090

  1. Agonal Respirations
    Slow, shallow, irregular respirations resulting from anoxic brain injury.
  2. Biot Respirations
    Irregular respirations varying in rate and depth and interrupted by periods of apnea; associated with increased intracranial pressure, brain damage at the level of the medulla, and respiratory compromise from drug poisoning.
  3. Anoxia
    Total lack of oxygen availabitlity to the tissuses.
  4. Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation
    Similar to Kussmaul respirations; characterized as deep, rapid breathing; associated with increased intracranial pressure.
  5. Cheyne-Stokes Respirations
    A pattern of gradually increasing rate and depth of breathing that tapers to slower and shallower breathing with a period of apnea before the cycle repeats itself; often described as a crescendo-decrescendo pattern or periodic breathing.
  6. Atelectasis
    An abnormal condition characterized by the collapse of alveoli, preventing the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in a part of the lungs.
  7. Crackles (Rales)
    When fluid accumulates in the smaller airway passages, air passing through the fluid creates a moist crackling or popping sound heard on inspiration.
  8. FiO2
    Fraction of inspired oxygen.
  9. Hering-Breuer Reflex
    A reflex that limits inspiration and prevents overinflation of the lungs in a conscious, spontaneously breathing person; also called the inhibito-inspiratory reflex.
  10. Hiccup (Hiccoughing)
    Intermittant spasm of the diaphragm resulting in sudden inspiration with spastic closure of the glottis.
  11. Hypercarbia
    An excess of CO2 in the blood.
  12. Hypocarbia
    An inadequate amount of CO2 in the blood.
  13. Hypoxemia
    An abnormal deficiency in the concentration of oxygen in arterial blood.
  14. Hypoxia
    Inadequate oxygenation of the cells.
  15. External Respiration
    The exchange of gases between the alveoli of the lungs and the blood cells traveling through the pulmonary capillaries.
  16. Internal Respiration
    The exchange of gases between blood cells and tissues.
  17. Kussmaul Respirations
    An abnormal respiratory pattern characterized by deep, gasping respirations that may be slow or rapid.
  18. Rattles (Rhonchi)
    Attributable to inflammation and mucus or fluid in the larger airway passages, rattles or rhonchi are descriptive of airway congestion heard on inspiration. Rhonchi are commonly associated with bronchitis or pneumonia.
  19. Respiration
    The exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment.
  20. Ventilation
    The mechanical process of moving air into and out of the lungs.
  21. Surfactant
    Specialized cells within each alveolus that keeps it from collapsing when little or no air is inside.
  22. Tidal Volume
    The volume of gas inhaled or exhaled during a single respiratory cycle. Approximately 500 mL in adult males.
  23. Wheeze
    A musical, whistling sound heard on inspiration and/or expiration resulting from constriction or obstruction of the pharynx, trachea, or bronchi. Wheezing is commonly associated with asthma.
  24. Alveolar Air Volume
    The amount of air that does reach the alveoli for gas exchange. The difference between tidal volume and dead-space volume (approximately 350 mL in adult males.)
  25. Dead-Space Volume (Dead Air Space)
    Air that is inspired and has the potential to participate in gas exchange, but is inside the trachea and bronchi where respiration doesn't occur instead of alveoli. Approximately 150 mL in adult males.
  26. Functional Reserve Capacity
    The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration.
  27. Minute Volume
    Amount of gas moved in and out of the respiratory tract per minute. Ventilatory rate and depth or each inhalation.
  28. Residual Volume
    After maximal forced exhalation, the amount of air remaining in the lungs and airway passages not able to be expelled.
  29. BVM Ventilation
    • Without O2 delivers 21% O2 to patient.
    • With O2 and without reservoir delivers 40%-60% O2 to patient.
    • With O2 and reservoir delivers 90%-100% O2 to patient.
  30. Mouth-to-mask Ventilation
    • Without O2 delivers 16%-17% exhaled air.
    • With supplemental O2 at 10 L/min delivers approximately 50% O2.
  31. Pediatric ET Tube Sizing Formula
    • Older than 2 years:
    • (Age in years/2) + 12

    • Ages 1-10:
    • Uncuffed - (Age in years/4) + 4
    • Cuffed - (Age in years/4) + 3
  32. Atropine
    • Adjunctive medication to decrease airway secretions and minimize bradycardia that results from vagal stimulation.
    • Onset: 2-3 minutes
    • Duration: >30 minutes
  33. Glycopyrrolate (Robinul)
    • Adjunctive medication to decrease airway secretions and minimize bradycardia that results from vagal stimulation.
    • Onset: 60 seconds
    • Duration: >30 minutes
  34. Lidocaine
    • Adjunctive medication given in situations involving a head injury or increased intracranial pressure. Diminishes cough and gag reflexs and may diminish the increase in intracranial pressure associated with intubation.
    • Onset: 2-5 minutes
    • Duration: >30 minutes
  35. Etomidate
    • Sedative
    • Onset: 30-45 seconds
    • Duration: 10-20 minutes
  36. Fentanyl
    • Sedative
    • Onset: Almost immediate
    • Duration: 30-90 minutes
  37. Ketamine
    • Sedative
    • Onset: 30-90 seconds
    • Duration: 5-20 minutes
  38. Midazolam (Verced)
    • Sedative
    • Onset: 2-3 minutes
    • Duration: 20-30 minutes
  39. Propofol
    • Sedative
    • Onset: 10-30 seconds
    • Duration: 3-5 minutes
  40. Thiopental
    • Sedative
    • Onset: 10-40 seconds
    • Duration: 10-20 minutes
  41. Pancuronium
    • Non-depolarizing NMBA
    • Onset: 1-2 minutes
    • Duration: 45-90 minutes
  42. Rocuronium
    • Non-depolarizing NMBA
    • Onset: 30-60 seconds
    • Duration: 30-60 minutes
  43. Vecuronium
    • Non-depolarizing NMBA
    • Onset: 1-2 minutes
    • Duration: 30-90 minutes
  44. Succinylcholine
    • Depolarizing NMBA
    • Onset: 30-60 seconds
    • Duration: 3-12 minutes
  45. Depolarizing NMBA
    • Neuromuscular binding agent-
    • Non-competitive
    • Non-reversible
    • Mimics Acetylcholine
    • Sustained depolarization
    • Prevents repolarization
    • Short acting
    • Ex. Succinylcholine
  46. Non-depolarizing NMBA
    • Neuromuscular binding agent-
    • Blocks cholinergic transmission at the synapse
    • Binds to Acetylcholine receptors on muscle
    • Competative and reversible with:
    • -----Neostigmine
    • -----Pyridostigmine
    • -----Edrophonium
    • Slower onset than depolarizing agent
    • No fasiculations
    • Long lasting
    • Ex. Rocuronium & Vecuronium
Card Set
EMTP 2090
NEMSA Accelerated Paramedic terms and flashcards over advanced airway.