Special Populations

  1. Youth Training
    -Key differences
    • -Can perform endurance related tasks very well. Children don't exhibit a plateau in oxygen uptake at maximum exercise
    • -Higher submaximal oxygen demand+lower absolute sweating rate=less tolerance for temperature extremes
    • -Lower glycolytic enzymes= decreased ability for high intensity (anaerobic) activity for prolonged time
  2. Seniors
    -Functions that decrease
    • -Max attainable HR
    • -Cardiac Output
    • -Muscle Mass
    • -Balance
    • -Coordination (neuromuscular efficiency)
    • -Connective tissue elasticity
    • -Bone mineral density
  3. Senior Training Must Begin With...
    • PAR-Q
    • (physical activity readiness questionnaire)
    • -Movement assessment (ie squat, sitting and standing position, or a single leg stance)
  4. Obesity
    -How many cal per day for effective loss
    -per week
    • -200 to 300
    • -1250
  5. Diabetes
    • Metabolic disorder
    • -Insulin deficiency which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fat and protein
  6. Diabetes
    -2 types
    • Type I: Insulin dependent. Found in normal and maybe underweight people, and rotted in a disease that impairs normal glucose management.
    • -Lack of insulin= blood sugar not optimally delivered into cells (particularly muscle and fat) resulting in Hyperglycemia (high levels of blood sugar) Hypoglycemia is a drop in blood sugar

    Type II: Non insulin dependent. Associated with obesity (particularly abdominal). They produce enough insulin, but their cells are resistant to the insulin (cells allow insulin to bring adequate blood sugar into cell) =Results in hyperglycemia
  7. Exercise and Diabetes
    • -Exercise is effective because it acts as insulin by enhancing the uptake of circulating glucose by skeletal muscles.
    • -Exercise has shown substantial positive effect for prevention of type II
  8. Hypertension
    Raised arterial blood pressure

    BP with systolic (top) being greater than or equal to 140 and the diastolic being greater than or equal to 90
  9. Hypertension
    -Specifications for workout
    • -Avoid laying down activities (myofacial release)
    • -Cardio should focus in stage one and progress with doctor permission
    • -Circuit style or Peripheral Heart Action training to to distribute blood flow between upper and lower extremities
  10. Coronary Heart Disease
    40% of deaths Annually in US
  11. Arthritis
    • Chronic Inflammation of Joints
    • -Osteoarthritis: cartilage becomes soft, frayed, or thinned out as result of trauma or other conditions
    • -Rheumatoid Arthritis: Body's immune system mistakenly attacks it's own tissue. Primarily affecting connective tissue in which there is a thickening of articular soft and extension of synovial tissue over articular cartilages that have become eroded
  12. Cancer
    • -Second leading cause of death in US
    • -Men 44% probability and Women 38%
  13. Lung Disease
    • -Restrictive Lung Disease: fibrous lung tissue which decreases ability to expand lungs
    • -Obstructive Lung Disease: Lung tissue is normal but flow restricted. Inflammation and airway obstruction via mucus production. (asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema)
  14. Intermittent Claudication/Peripheral Arterial Disease
    • Manifestation of Peripheral arterial disease
    • -Narrowing of major arteries that supply blood (oxygen) to lower extremities.
    • -Can cause limping, lameness, or pain in lower legs during mild exercise
Card Set
Special Populations
Special Populations