AP biology chapter 10 terms.txt

  1. Chlorophyll
    The green pigment located within chloroplasts.
  2. Mesophyll
    The tissue in the interior of the leaf.
  3. Stomata
    • Microscopic pores, allow oxygen out and CO2 in. Breathing holes of the plant. (#2)
    • Image Upload 1
  4. Stroma
    The dense fluid within the chloroplast.
  5. Autotrophs
    Produce their own food with energy from sun and CO2 by photosynthesis .
  6. Photosynthesis equation
    6CO2)+ 6(H2O) + Light energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  7. Thylakoids
    • An elaborate system of interconnected membranous sacks (disks). Separates the stroma from inside them (thylakoid space) #1
    • Image Upload 2
  8. Grana
    • Collins of thylakoid sacks.
    • Singular granum.
    • Image Upload 3
  9. Calvin Cycle
    (light independent/ sugar building reactions) uses ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 and synthesize glucose (C6H12O6)
  10. Image Upload 4
    Image Upload 5
  11. Image Upload 6
    Image Upload 7
  12. Image Upload 8
    Image Upload 9
  13. ATP synthase enzyme
    hydrogen ions flow down the concentration gradient through this to create ATP
  14. What colors does chlorophyll a absorb best?
    Wavelength of 690 nm (red light) also absorbs violet blue.
  15. What does chlorophyll b absorb best?
    700 nm (red light) (can absorb blue?)
  16. What is the primary pigment in photosystem I and II?
    Chlorophyll a (due to accessory molecules chlorophyll a in photosystem I takes longer wavelengths)
  17. Where is the electric transport chain?
    In the membrane of the thylakoids.
  18. Pigment
    • Substances that absorb visible light. Electron moves from ground state to ecited state.
    • Image Upload 10
  19. Action Spectrum
    • Profiles relative effectiveness for different wavelengths. Proves that red and violet blue are optimal for plant photosynthesis
    • Image Upload 11
  20. Absorption Spectra
    Image Upload 12
    1)Chlorophyll a 2)Chlorophyll b 3) Cartenoids
  21. Carotenoids
    Hydrocarbons that are various shades of yellow and orange because they absorb violet and blue-green light.broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.also have a role in photo protection.
  22. Photosystem
    • Composed of a reaction center complex surrounded by several light harvesting complexes. (#1)
    • Image Upload 13
  23. Reaction center complex
    • Protein complex which includes a special pair of chlorophyll a molecules. As well as the primary electron accepter. (#3)
    • Image Upload 14
  24. Light harvesting complex
    • Consists of various pigment molecules (chlorophyll a and b, as well as the Carotenoids) bound to proteins. Act as an antenna for the reaction center complex. (#2)
    • Image Upload 15
  25. Primary electron acceptor
    • Receives electrons from the pair of chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction center in a redox reaction. (4)
    • Image Upload 16
  26. Photosystem II (PS II)
    Resides in the thylakoid membrane, functions first in the light reactions. It's reaction center is known as P680 because it absorbed lift at 680 nm best (red)
  27. Photosystem I (PS I)
    Resides in the thylakoid membrane, functions second in the light reactions. It's reaction center is known as P700 because it absorbed lift at 680 nm best (far red )
  28. Linear electron flow
    Flow of electrons through the photosystems and other molecular components built into the thylakoid membrane.
  29. Cyclic electron flow
    Does not produce NADHP or O2, but produces ATP. May help in ohotopeotection.
  30. What color of light is least effective in driving photosynthesis?
    Green, because that wavelength is reflected and tranitted.
  31. In light reactions, what is the initial electron donor?
  32. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)
    Product of Calvin cycle. Takes 3 cycles to make one G3P molecule. This can be used to make glucose and other organic molecules.
  33. Rubisco
    Catalyzes reaction incorporating CO2 to ribulose biphosphate (RuBP). Most abundant protein in plants, said to be the most abundant protein on earth)
Card Set
AP biology chapter 10 terms.txt
Flashcards for ap bio, some have detailed pictures and diagrams. decent quality if i don't say so myself