1. Describe blood vessel walls.
    • 1. Tunica interna (inner layer, in contact with lumen of the blood vessel) - consists of endothelium, basement membrane, internal elastic lamina
    • 2. Tunica media (middle layer) - consists of smooth muscle and external elastic lamina (contraction to monitor the blood flow, blood pressure monitoring, vasospams)
    • 3. Tunica externa (outer layer) - elastic and collagen fibers with numerous nerves
  2. Describe arteries by:
    1) Stating their function and structure
    2) Defining vasoconstriction and vasodilation
    3) Distinguishing structurally and functionally among elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles
    4) Describing the function of anastomoses
    5) Defining collateral circulation
    6) Describing precapillary sphincters
    • 1)Elastic arteries: Has more elastic fibers and less smooth muscle in their tunica media
    • Muscular arteries: contains more smooth muscle and fewer elastic fibers
    • Arterioles: consists of one to two layers of smooth muscle cells having a circular orientation in the vessel wall Functionally
    • Elastic arteries---- help propel blood onward while the ventricles are relaxing Muscular arteries adjust the rate of blood flow and distribute blood to organs
    • Arterioles---- regulate the flow of blood into capillaries
    • 2)Vasoconstriction: decrease in the diameter of the lumen of the blood vessel to due increased stimulation of the sympathetic ANS,
    • Vasodilation: increase in the diameter of the lumen of the blood vessel to due the decreased stimulation of the sympathetic ANS
    • 4)To provide blood supply to a body part in the event of one part of the artery being blocked by disease,injury ,surgery
    • 5) the alternative circulatory route of blood flow to a body part through an anastomosis if a vessel is blocked by disease or injury.
    • 6) Are the most distal muscle cell at the junction of the metarteriole-capillary junction (metarteriole = distal end of an arteriole). It receives input from sympathetic innervation and local chemicals to adjust arteriole diameter, regulating blood flow through capillaries
  3. Summarize capillaries by describing:
    1) Their function and structure
    2) Autoregulation of capillary blood flow
    3) The function and mechanism of capillary exchange
    4) Influences on capillary exchange
    • 1) Function: exchange of materials between the blood and interstitial fluid, Structure: Single Endothelium layer and Basement membrane
    • 2) fuction: it help substance move between blood and interstitial fluid, Mechanism is by diffusion and transcytosis.
    • 3)Capillary blood pressure “pushes”s s s fluids out of capillaries into interstitial fluid (filtration)
    • 4)
  4. Describe venules and veins by:
    1) Stating the function and structure of venules
    2) Stating the function and structure of veins
    3) Stating the purpose of venous valves
    4) Explain how venous valves, skeletal muscle contractions, and breathing help return venous blood to the heart
    • 1) Function---Drain capillaries and start the venous return to heart and also are exchane sites for nutrients and wastes and WBC in infected and inflamed tissues. Structure-----Thin walled and loosely arranged endothelial cells
    • 2) structure ---thin walls with smooth muscle and elastic fibers with valves. function ---return blood to the heart
    • 3) It helps to prevent the backflow of blood.
    • 4) 1. Skeletal muscle pump - 1. a muscle is relaxed, both proximal and distal valves are open
  5. Define varicose veins and hemorrhoids.
    • 1) veins that become dilated and twisted in their appearance are called varicose veins or varices. This condition is caused by leaky venous valves.
    • 2) are the varicoses in the veins of the anal canal.
  6. Describe the distribution of blood in the body.
    Systemic veins and venules(blood reservoirs) >Systemic arteries and arterioles>Pulmonary blood vessels> Systemic capillaries=Heart chambers
  7. Summarize the physiology of blood flow by
    1) Defining blood flow and naming two factors that influence blood flow
    2) Describing systolic and diastolic blood pressure
    3) Describing blood pressure in various vessels of the cardiovascular system
    4) Describe three factors that affect vascular resistance
    • 1) The amount or volume of blood flowing through any tissue at any given time (unit mL/min) 2 factors that influence blood flow----1.Pressure difference 2. Vascular resistance
    • 2)Systolic blood pressure is the highest pressure during systole, and diastolic blood pressure is the lowest pressure during diastole
    • 3) aorta>arteries>arterioles>capillaries>venules>veins>vena cavae.
    • 4) 1) thickness of blood (the thicker, the higher the resistance) 2) length of blood vessel (longer the blood vessel, higher the resistance) 3) vasoconstriction (increases resistance)
  8. Explain how the cardiovascular center and baroreceptors regulate blood pressure.
    1. Low blood pressure--> baroreceptors stretched less--> a decrease of parasympathetic stimulation by cardiovascular center (by vagus nerve) and increase of sympathetic stimulation of the heart by the cardiac accelerator nerves + secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine by adrenal medulla --> increased stroke volume and heart rate (=increased cardiac output)
  9. Describe pulse by:
    1) Defining pulse
    2) Stating generally where on the body the pulse may be felt
    3) Distinguishing between tachycardia and bradycardia
    • 1) it is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery after every rythmic contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.
    • 2) can be felt in any artery that lies near the body surface.
    • 3) Tachycardia- abnormally high heart rate (100 beats/min & above), bradycardia: abnormally low heart rate (below 60 beats/minute)
  10. Describe the mechanism for measuring systolic and diastolic blood pressure including which blood vessel is commonly used for blood pressure measurements.
    • 1) Sphygmomanometer- is a inflatable cuff that is a attached to a air-bladder. This instrument is used to measure the systolic and diastolic and sometimes coupled with stethoscope that helps you idenitfy the sounds of korotkoff ( Sound I is the systolic and sound 4 is the diastolic)
    • 2) Brachial Artery
  11. Define hypotension.
    Hypotension can be define as abnormally low blood pressure.
  12. Define hypertension and explain the damaging effects of untreated hypertension.
    Hypertension is non-transient, persistent high blood pressure.Untreated hypertension is a major risk factor for the first and third leading causes of death in the US, heart disease and stroke, respectively.Hypertension is accompanied by high vascular resistance --> Increased tunica media thickness --> Susceptibility to atherosclerosis and CAD.High vascular resistance --> Increased afterload --> Ventricular hypertrophy --> Susceptibility to heart failure
  13. State which vein is commonly used for administration of medication, transfusions, or obtaining blood samples.
    Median cubital vein
  14. Explain how the azygos system provides collateral circulation.
    • Azygos Vein: Drains right thorax and right abdomen into SVC
    • Hemiazygos Vein: Drains inferior left thorax and left abdomen into Azygos v. (which then drains into SVC)
    • Accessory Azygos Vein: Drains superior left thorax into Azygos v. (which then drains into SVC)

    The azygos veins provide collateral circulation to the IVC. Blood will take the path of least resistance to get back into the heart and so if the IVC is obstructed or occluded, blood from the abdomen will travel via the azygos system to drain into the heart via the SVC, instead. This secondary vascular route that blood may take in the event of increased resistance in a main vascular route is an example of collateral circulation.
  15. Describe the function of the hepatic portal circulation.
    Food --> Spleen, stomach, pancreas, small and large intestine -->Splenic vein or superior mesenteric vein -->Hepatice portal vein -->Liver -->hepatic veins -->inferior vena cava--> heart-->aorta-->hepatic artery-->Liver
  16. Veins draining head and neck:
    • Superior vena cava
    • Brachiocephalic vein
    • Vertebral vein
    • Internal jugular vein
    • Subclavian vein
    • External jugular vein
  17. Veins draining upper limbs:
    • Superior vena cava
    • Brachiocephalic vein
    • Subclavian vein
    • Axillary vein
    • Cephalic vein
    • Median cubital vein (connects cephalic and basilic veins, drains into basilic vein)
    • Basilic vein
    • Brachial vein
    • Radial vein
    • Ulnar vein
    • Palmar venous arches (drain into both radial and ulnar veins)
    • Digital veins of the hand
  18. Veins draining thorax:
    • Superior vena cava
    • Azygos vein
    • Right posterior intercostal veins
    • Hemiazygos vein
    • Accessory hemiazygos vein
    • Left posterior intercostal veins (drain into both hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins)
  19. Veins draining gonads, kidneys, and adrenal glands:
    • Inferior vena cava
    • Right gonadal (ovarian or testicular) vein
    • Right suprarenal vein
    • Renal vein
    • Left gonadal (ovarian or testicular) vein
    • Left suprarenal vein
  20. Veins draining gastrointestinal organs, spleen, and liver:
    • Inferior vena cava
    • Hepatic veins
    • Hepatic portal vein
    • Superior mesenteric vein
    • Splenic vein
    • Inferior mesenteric vein
  21. Veins draining lower limbs:
    • Inferior vena cava
    • Common iliac veins
    • Internal iliac vein
    • External iliac vein
    • Great saphenous vein
    • Femoral vein
    • Popliteal vein
    • Small saphenous vein
    • Anterior tibial vein
    • Posterior tibial vein
    • Plantar venous arch
    • Digital veins of the foot
Card Set
Chapters 20 and 21