The Magna Carta in 1215 and the bill of rights in the 17th century limited English Kings' power. Elizabeth's successor _______ ruled using the principle of ___________.
- James I
- Divine Right of Kings
James I did not have enough money from traditional sources like land and payment from nobles so he asked Parliament for money. They asked for favors in return. He had a deficit of 100,000 pounds. Which two groups in parliament gave him the most trouble?
James I wanted to marry his daughter to _________ but Parliament said no. He was advised by __________ to ally against the Hapsburgs, but he told them to stay out of foreign affiars. Then, Parliament began the _______.
- A Spanish Infanta
- The House of Commons
- Grand Protestation
During the Grand Protestaion, James dissolved Parliament, killed three of its leaders, and ripped out a page of their journal. He went to war with _______ to help Protestant princes in 1624.
James I was succeeded by whom?
Charles I, not his brother Henry who was great but he died.
In 1627, Charles I went to war with France. He asked Parliament for money, and they presented him with ________ (give the year), which said:
- The Petition of Right in 1628.
- No taxation without representation
- No quartering of soldiers in homes
- No martial law in times of peace
- No false imprisonment
After the Duke of Buckingham was assasinated, Parliament wrote the _________ which said:
- Three Resolutions
- No popish innovations
- No taxing without Parliament's consent
- No paying taxes without Parliament's consent
Charles I dissolved parliament for 11 years from when to when?
What did Charles I do to get money wihtout Parliament's help?
- He ended war with France and Spain in 1630
- He extended the ship money tax to all of England
When Charles I imposed his Anglican ways on the Scots, via the Book of Common Prayer, the Scots rebelled. How did Charles get money to raise an army? What happened when Charles lost?
- He called a Short Parliament for two months, but they had a bunch of complaints so he said, "naaah"
- He had to pay the Scots for their loss, and he called a long parliament for nine years.
What did the Triennial Act say?
Parliament must be called every three years. The king cannot dissolve parliament..
Where did the Irish Catholics rebel against the protestants?
Ulster-30,000 dead. There was no response from England because the king and Parliament didn't trust each other with an army.
What did the Parliament want in the Grand Remonstrance?
- No Episcopal form of government
- Parliament chooses ministers
- No prelates (upper clergy people) in Parliament
Charles I tried to arrest ______ Parliament leaders but they were _____. He then moved his headquarters from London to ______.
How did Charles respond to the 19 Propositions.
He said no even though Parliament offered him money.
- Loyal to Parliament
In 1644, Parliament allied with Scotland and Cromwell. What was the name of Cromwell's army? How did Charles react when Cromwell won at Naseby in 1645>
- New Model Army/Ironsides
- Charles surrenderred to the Scots and said he'd make a Presbyterian church so they allied with him.
Cromwell wanted a monarchy. True or false? What about a national church.
How did Parliament feel about this stuff.
- He said no to both of these things
- Parliament wanted a limited monarchy and a national church.
In the Second Civil War, the Scots were with Charles. The Presbyterians tried to strike a deal with Charles. How did Cromwell react?
Cromwell expelled them and the Rump Parliament resulted (60 members).
Charles defended himself well at his trial...blah blah blah.
- He didn't stutter.
- He said he needed a jury of his peers (there are none)
- People gasped when he was executed.
- The end.
What was the rule of Cromwell called?
What constitution did Cromwell write?
What did it say?
- Institution of Government (1st modern constitution)
- Cromwell is lord protector, he shares power with Parliament, there is freedom of religion (mostly)
People hated Cromwell's new ideas, and Cromwell hated the Rump Parliament so what did he do?
He dissolved parliament and set up a military government with 12 districts. He didn't like it and he died during this time.
Who succeeded Cromwell? And after that?
- Richard Cromwell (son who quit)
- Charles II
How did Charles II become king? What is this time called?
The General Monk called the Parliament in 1660 that asked for Charles II. This gave Parliament power over the king. It's called the Restoration.
James I started the feud with Parliament by intentionally enraging them. So they split between the churchers and the Puritans. Who was his helper who helped him stay in control?
When Charles I instituted ship money, who fought against him in trial? What was significant?
Who influenced Charles I?
- John Hampton. He was a lawyer who almost won against Charles.
- His wife was french so she made him kinda Catholic in his ways.
What ideas did universities plant in people's minds.
How did the Royalists justify the king's rule?
- They gave people Grek ideas of Democracy and they wanted to rebel.
- Royalists felt that the king ruled by divine right and he was second only to god. Even prophets revered the king.
How did Loui XIVs use Versailles?
He kept his nobles in there and prevented them from using their own lands for their own purposes (this was good for the king but bad for the people). He also used it to impress people and make them fear him.
How did Richelieu help to make France absolute?
He got them into the 30 Years War (made them powerful in Europe) and he controlled the nobes and the Huguenots through regulations and he stopped funding their armies.
Why did Colbert want to keep the Huguenots?
They were the working class.
Louis XIV was king from 1643 to 1715 (age 5). At the time, france extended from the Flanders to the Pyrenees (at the Rhine). What innovations did Louis bring to the army?
He had a standing army of 100,000 which could be increased to 300,000.
Name the importance of these figures:
Marquis De Luvois
Vicomte de Jurenne
Marquis de Vauban
- Secretary of war who prevented sales of army offices and replaced them with trained commanders
- Trained people
- Great general
- Fortification expert
- Artillery specialist
What caused the War of Devolution?
Philip IV of Spain died and his daughter Maria Teresa was married to Louis XIV, but her dad had not paid the dowry. As a result, she never gave up her rights to Spain's land, and Louis took over the Spanish Netherlands. He cited the Right of Devolution which said that the daughter of a first marriage had precedence over the son of a second marriage.
In the War of Devolution, when Louis occupied Belgium, what alliance formed?
What treaty ended the war and what were its terms
- The Triple Alliance-Dutch, English, Swedes
- Louis went to the Spanish property Franch-Comte and he signed the Alx-La-Chapelle where he returned Franch-Comte but kept the fortified places in the Netherlands.
What was the significance of the War of Devolution?
It was the first time Louis tried to expand France, and it was the first time that hostile countries joined together against France. Louis didn't really care about Alx-La-Chapelle because he destroyed fortifications in Franch-Comte but kept them in the Netherlands, meaning he was going to come back to it.
When Louis signed a secret treaty with Leopold (the HRE), what did it say?
When he signed the Treaty of Dover with England, what was surprising about it?
- It said that he would split any conquered Spanish territories with Leo in the future.
- It said that England could not go to war with France and Louis did the same thing with Sweden.
How did Louis isolate the Dutch.
He signed the treaties with England and Sweden (another card about that) and he paid off Cologne and Munster.
Once Louis isolated the Dutch, what happened?
He invaded the United Provinces but Amsterdam flooded their land and got the help of William of Orange. William got Spain and Brandenberg to help out, so Louis signed the treaty of Nijmegen and he got to keep Franch Comte.
What was the Policy of Reunion?
Louis said that he could take any territory that ever belonged to any territory that was in his possession. He took Alsace, Lorraine, Luxemberg
Explain the War of the League of Augsburg (how it started).
William of Orange lead the league which included Spain, HRE, Sweden, England, Savoy (which Louis could have had because Eugene offered to fight for him but Louis said no and Eugene was totez brillz as a military leader). People weere fed up over the Reunion act and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and there was an issue in Cologne so all hell broke loose.
In the War of the league of Augsburg, Louis wanted James II on the throne of England but he didn't succeed. How did the war end?
The Treaty of Ryswick gave back all of the land Louis got from the Reunion act and Charles II of Spain was succeeded by Louis' kid Philip V.