What are the Four Groups of Muscles of the Spine and Thorax?
- 1. Erector Spinae Group
- 2. Transversospinalis Group
- 3. Splenii
- 4. Suboccipitals
1. The muscles of the Spine and Thorax are situated along the ______ and ________ regions and create movement of the vertebral column and rib cage.
2. Unlike the limb muscles, the spinal muscles are composed of number bands of densely ______ fibers that make it ______ to isolate particular portion of muscles.
3. Other muscles affecting the thorax, the __________ and _______ of the Head, Neck and Face.
- 1. Posterior / Abdominal
- 2. Interwoven / Difficult
- 3. Sternocleidomastoid and Scalenes
A smaller group that has three banches but lie deep to the erectors. Its name refers to its muscle firbers, which extend at varying lengths from the transverse and spinous processess of the vertebrae
The branches are Multifidi, Rotatores, Semispinalis Capitis
What is the Transversospinalis Group?
Most superficial of the spinal muscles and has three major branches, runs from the sacrum to the occiput along the posterior aspect of the vertebral column. Has a dense, layered arrangment that can be difficult to visualize. The three main branches are Spinalis, Longissimus, and Iliocostalis. The smaller branches can be subdevided in spinalis thoracis, longissimus capitis, iliocostalis lumborum and more
What is the Erector Spinae Group?
Small group spinal muscles located along the posterior neck, deep to the trapezius. Differs from the rest of the muscles of the back as its fibers run obliquely. Includes the Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis
What are the Splenii Group?
Of all the groups of the Spinal Muscles, this is the deepest muscles, located at the base of the head of the upper posterior neck. Are involved in stabilizing the axis and atlas and creating intrinsic movements such as rocking and tilting of the head.
They include Rectus Capitis Posterior Major, Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor, Oblique Capitis Superior and Oblique Capitis Inferior.
What are the Suboccipitals?
1. The Erector Spinae Group runs from the ______ to the _____ along the posterior aspect of the vertebral column. They lie _____ to the thin but dense _____ ______.
2. Its musculature has a dense ______ arrangment that can be difficult to visualize. Its three main branches are the _____, ______ and _______.
3. The _______ is the smallest of the three muscles and lies closest to the spine in the lamina groove.
4. The thick ______ and lateral ______ form a visible mound alongside the lumbar and thoracic spine.
5. The long tendons of iliocostalis extend _____ beneath the scapula. As a group, the erectors are easily palpated along the entire length of the _____ and ______.
6. The upper fibers of _____ and _____ muscles assist in extension, lateral flexion and rotation of the ____ and ____ to the same side.
- 1. Sacrum / Occiput / Deep / Thoracolumber Aponeurosis
- 2. Layered / Spinalis, Longissimus and Iliocostalis
- 3. Spinalis
- 4. Longissimus / Iliocostalis
- 5. Laterally / Back and Neck
- 6. Longissimus and Iliocostalis / Head and Neck
Erector Spinae Group as a whole
1. ACTION: Unilaterally- Laterally _____ vertebral column to the _____ side | Bilaterally- ______ the vertebral column.
2. ORIGIN: Common Tendon (____ _____) that asstached to the posterior surface of sacrum, iliac crest, spinous processess of the lumbar and last 2 thoracic vertebrae.
3. INSERTION: Various attachments at posterior ____, transverse and spinous processes of _____ and _____ vertebrae and _____ process of temporal bone.
- 1. Flex / Same / Extend
- 2. Thoracolumber Aponeurosis
- 3. Ribs / Thoracic and Cervical / Mastoid
Spinalis Branch of Erector Spinae Group
1. ORIGINS: ____ processes of the upper lumber and lower _____ vertebrae (thoracis) | ______ _____, spinous process of C-7 (cervicis)
2. INSERTIONS: Spinous Processes of upper ______ (Thoracis) and ______, except C-1 (cervicis)
Longissimus of Erector Spinae Group
3. ORIGIN: Common Tendon _______ and ______ processes of upper five ______ vertebrae (cervicis and capitis)
4. INSERTION: Lower ____ ribs and _____ processess of ____ vertebrae (thoracis) | _____ processes of ____ vertebrae (cervicis) and Mastoid Process of temporal bone (Capitis)
- 1. Spinous / Thoracic | Thoracolumbar Aponeurorosis
- 2. Thoracic and Cervicals
- 3. Thoracis / Transverse / Thoracic
- 4. Nine / Transverse / Thoracic | Transverse / Cervical
The Iliocostalis Branch of the Erector Spinae Group
1. ORIGIN: Common Tendon (_______) and ______ surface of ribs ____ thru ____ (thoracis and cervicis)
2. INSERTION: ______ processes of _____ vertebrae 1-3 and posterior surface of ____ 6-12 (lumborum) | Posterior surface of ribs ___ thru ___ (thoracis) and _____ processes of lower cervicals (cervicis)
- 1. Lumborum / Posterior / 1 thru 12
- 2. Transverse / Lumbar / Ribs | 1 thru 6 / Transverse
1. Deep to the erector muscle group is the ________ muscle group. It may be difficult to isolate the individular bellies.
2. However, as a group, their mass or density can be easily felt along the ____ ____ of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.
3. Unlike the long, vertical erector fibers, the branches of this group consist of many short, _______ fibers.
4. These fibers form an intricate _______ design that links the _______ together.
5. The name actually refers to the fact that the fibers extend varying lengths from the _____ and ____ processes of the vertebrae.
- 1. Transversospinalis
- 2. Lamina Groove
- 3. diagonal
- 4. stitchlike / vertebrae
- 5. Transverse and Spinous
The three branches of the Transversospinalis Group
1. The suprisingly thick ______ are directly assesible in the lumbar spine. Only muscles with fiber that lie across the posterior surface of the _____.
2. The shorter, smaller ________ lie deep to the multifidi
3. The ____ ____ is located along the ____ and ____ vertebrae and ultimately reaches the cranium. Both muscles form the "speed bumps" easily seen on posterior _____ when extended.
4. All three branches extend the length of the ____ column.
- 1. Multifidi / Sacrum
- 2. Rotatores
- 3. Semispinalis Capitis / Thoracic and Cervical / Neck
- 4. Vertebral
The Multifidi branch of the Transversospinalis Group
1.ACTION: Unilaterally- Rotate the ______ column to the _____ side. / Bilaterally - ____ the vertral column.
2.ORIGIN: _____, _____ processes of lumbar through ______ vertebrae
3.INSERTION: _____ processes of lumbar verterbrae through C-2 (each belly spanning ( __ to __ vertebrae)
- 1. Vertebral / opposite / Extend
- 2. Sacrum / Transverse / Cervical
- 3. Transverse / 2 to 4
The Rotatores Branch of the Transversospinalis Group
1. ACTION: Unilaterally - _____ the vertebral column to the ______ side. / Bilaterally - ______ the vertebral column.
2. ORIGIN: ______ processes of lumbar through ______ vertebrae.
3. INSERTION: _____ processes of lumbar vertebrae through ____ cervical vertebrae. ( span __ to __ vertebrae )
- 1. Rotate / Opposite / Extend
- 2. Transverse / Cervical
- 3. Spinous / Second / one to two
The Semispinalis Capitis branch of Transversospinalis Group
1. ACTION: Extend the ______ column and _____
2. ORGIN: _____ processes of thoracic vertebrae, _____ processes of lower cervicals
3. INSERTION: Spinous processes of upper _____ and ____ (except C-1) and superior ____ ____ of occiput.
- 1. Vertebral / Head
- 2. Transverse / Articular
- 3. Thoracic and Cervicals / Nuchal Line
1. The long ____ _____ and ____ ____ muscles are located along the upper back and posterior neck.
2. In contrast to the other back muscles that run parallel to the spine, the Splenii fibers run _______
3. The ____ _____ is deep to the trapezius and rhomboids Its fibers angle toward the ____ process and are superficial between trapezius & SCM
4. The ____ _____ is deep to the spenius capitis are not easily located. General location can be outline in the ____ groove of the upper thoracic and ____ spine.
5. They both have the same action: Unilaterally - Rotate the ____ and ____ to the same side and laterally ____ the head and neck. / Bilaterally - Extend the ____ and ____.
- 1. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis
- 2. Obliquely
- 3. Splenius Capitis / Mastoid
- 4. Spenius Cervicis / Lamina / Cervical
- 5. Head and Neck / Flex / Head and Neck
Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis
1. ORIGIN: ____ _____, spinous processes of ____ to ____
2. INSERTION: ______ process and lateral portion of superior ____ ____
3. ORGIN: _____ processes of ____ to _____
4. INSERTION: _____ processes of upper ______ vertebrae
- 1. Ligamentum Nuchae, C-7 to T-3
- 2. Spinous / Nuchal Line
- 3. Spinous / T-3 to T-6
- 4. Tranverse / Cervical
1. The most medial branch of the erector spinar group is the _____, while the most lateral is the ______.
2. In the lumbar regioin, erectors lie deep to the connective tissue structure ______ ______
3. To contract the lower fibers of the erector spinae group in a prone position, ask your partner to _____ and _____ feet.
4. When exploring between the scapulae, three muscles through which you will have to palpate to access the deeper erector spinae fibers is the ______, ______ and ______.
5. Unlike the long, vertical erector fibers, branches of Transversospinalis group consist of many ____, _____ fibers.
- 1. Spinalis / Iliocostalis
- 2. Thoracolumbar Aproneious
- 3. Raise and Lower
- 4. Trapezius, Rhomboids and Serratus
- 5. Short, Diagonal
Shorting or Lengthening of Erector Spinae and Transversospinalis Groups
1. Passive flexion of the spine would ______ the iliocostalis
2. Passive rotation of the spine to the opposite side would _____ the rotatores
3. Passive lateral flexion of the spine to the same side would ______ the longissimus.
4. Passive rotation of the spine to the same side would _____ the multifidi
- 1. Lengthen
- 2. Shorten
- 3. Shorten
- 4. Lengthen
1. The eight small ______ are the deepest muscles of the upper posterior neck
2. They are involved in stabilizing the ___ and ___ in creating intrinsic movements such as rocking and tilting the head.
3. To outline the location, find the spinous process of ____, the tranverse processes of ____ and the space between the Superion nuchal line of the _____ and ____
4. The upper fibers of the _____ can also be used as a marker. The lateral edge of the muscle is the same width as the muscle group
5. Rectus Capitis Posterior Major and Minor and Oblique Capitis Superior all the same action: ____ and _____ the head back into extension
6. Rectis Capitis Posterior Major and Oblique Capitis Inferior have the same action: Rotate the ____ to the same side.
- 1. Suboccipitals
- 2. Axis and Atlas
- 3. C-2 / C-1 / Occiput and C-2
- 4. Trapezius
- 5. Rock and Tilt
- 6. Head
Suboccipitals Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
1. ORIGIN - ____ process of the ____ (C-2)
2. INSERTION - ____ nuchal line of the _____
Suboccipitals Rectis Capitis Posterior Minor
3. ORIGIN - ____ of the posterior arch of the _____ (C-1)
4. INSERTION - ____ nuchal line of the _____
- 1. Spinous / Axis
- 2. Inferior / Occiput
- 3. Tubercle / Atlas
- 4. Inferior / Occiput
Suboccipitals Oblique Capitis Superior
1.ORIGIN - _____ process of the ____ (C-1)
2. INSERTION - Between the ____ lines of the ____
Suboccipitals Oblique Capitis Inferior
3. ORIGIN - _____ process of the _____ (C-2)
4. INSERTION - _____ process of the ____ (C-1)
- 1. Transverse / Atlas
- 2. Nuchal / Occitput
- 3. Spinous / Axis
- 4. Transverse / Atlas
Shortening and Lengthening of the Splenii and Suboccipitals
1. Passive rotation of head to the same side would ______ the rectus capitis posterior major.
2. Passive lateral flexion of head and neck would _______ the splenius cervicis.
3. Passive extension of head and neck would _______ the splenius cervicis.
4. Passive rotation of head to the opposite side would _____ the oblique capitis inferior.
5. Passive rotation of head and neck to the opposite side would ______ the splenius capitis.
- 1. Shorten
- 2. Shorten
- 3. Shorten
- 4. Lengthen
- 5. Lengthen
1. Although the _____ _____ seems to be deepest muscle of low back, its actually the deepest muscle of the abdomen.
2. It stretches from the posterior ____ to the _____ processes of the lumbar vertebrae and 12th rib, an abdominal muscle located on the posterior surface of the ______.
3. While the posterior portion is buried beneath the ____ ____ and the thick erector spinae.
4. The edge of this muscle is accesible from the _____ edge of the torso.
5. The action your partner can perform to feel this muscle is _____ the hip toward the ______.
- 1.Quadratus Lumborim (QL)
- 2. Ilium / Tranverse / Thorax
- 3. Thoracolumbar Aponeurosis
- 5.Elevate / Shoulder
1. Unilaterallly: - Laterally ____ the pelvis, Laterally ____ the vertebral column to the same side and assist to _____ the ____ ____.
2. Bilaterally: - Fix the _____ rib during inhalation and _____ exhalation
3. ORIGIN: Posterior ___ ____
4. INSERTION: ____ rib and ____ processes of first through fouth ____ vertebrae
- 1. Tilt / Flex / Extend / Vertebral Column
- 2. Last / Forced
- 3. Iliac Crest
- 4. Last / Transverse / Lumbar
The Abdominals Group (Rectus Abdominis, External and Internal Oblique and Transverse Abdominis)
1. The four Abdominal muscles expand far beyond the "____" region, they form a muscular ____ that reaches around sides of thorax to the __ __, superiorly to middle ribs and inferiorly to inguinal ligament.
2. These muscles, with its unique _____ arrangment and varying fiber directions help to stabilize the entire _____ region.
3. The revered "washboard belly" is formed by the multiple, superficial bellies of the ____ ____. Another muscle, the ___ ____, its fibers are deep and _______ to the external oblique fibers and difficult to distinguish.
4. Lateral to the Rectus Abdominis is the ____ ____, which has a broad, superficial muscle best palpated at its attachments to the lower ____.
5. The ____ _____, the deepest muscle of the group, plays a major role in ___ ___. It cannot be specifically palpated.
- 1. Stomach / Girdle / Thoracolumber Aponeurosis
- 2. Overlapping / Abdominal
- 3. Rectus Abdomins / Internal Oblique / perpendicular
- 4. External Oblique / Ribs
- 5. Transverse Abdominis / Forced Exhalation
1. The three bony landmarks that can help you isolate borders of Quadratus Lumborum are the ____ rib, Posterion ___ ____, and the ____ processes of ____ vertebrae.
2. The abdominal muscle that runs vertically from rib cage to the pubic crest is the ____ ____.
3. Rotating your trunk right would engage your _____ internal oblique muscle. The primary muscle for Respiration is the _______.
4. When palpating lateral to the edge of rectus abdominis and fiber you feel of the ____ _____ run at an angle.
5. When the diaphragm muscle fibers contract, the ___ ____, a connective tissue structure is pulled inferiorly.
6. The two large muscles through which you would have to palpate to access portions of intercostals is the ___ ____ and the ___ ___.
- 1. Twelfth / Iliac Crest / Transverse / Lumber
- 2. Rectus Abdominis
- 3. Right / Diaphragm
- 4. External Oblique
- 5. Central Tendon
- 6. External Oblique
Rectus Abdominis of the Abdominals
1. ACTION: ____ the vertebral column. / ORIGIN: Pubic ____ and Pubic _____ / INSERTION: _____ of 5th, 6th, and 7th ribs and _____ process.
Transverse Abdomins of the Abdominals
2. ACTION: ______ abdominal contents / ORIGIN: Lateral _____ ligament, __ ___, ____ fascia and internal surface of lower ___ ribs and / INSERTION: ____ ____ to linea alba
3. Pyramidalis of the Abdominals is located ______ to the Rectus Abdominis, this small muscle is absent in roughly ____ percent of the population.
4. ACTION: Tenses the ___ ____ / ORIGIN: Pubic ______ / INSERTION: ___ ____
- 1. Action: Flex | Origin: Crest and Symphysis | Insertion: Cartilage / Xiphoid
- 2. Action: Compress | Origin: Inguinal / Iliac Crest / Thoracolumbar / Six | Insertion: Abdominal Aponeurosis
- 3. Superficially / 20%
- 4. Action: Linea Alba | Origin:Symphysis | Insertion:Linea Alba
Internal Oblique of the Abdominals
1. ACTION: Unilaterally - Laterally ____ vertebral column to ____ side & ____ vertebral column to ___ side | Bilaterally - ____ the vertrbral column & _____ abdominal contents
2. ORIGIN: Lateral _____ ligament, ___ ____ and _____ fascia | INSERTION: Internal surface of lower ___ ribs, ___ ____ to linea alba
External Oblique of the Abdominals
3. ACTION: Unilaterally- Laterally ____ vertebral column to ___ side, ____ vertrebral column to ____ side. | Bilaterally - ____ vertebral column & _____ abdominal contents
4. ORIGIN: Lower ____ ribs | INSERTION: Anterior part of ____ ____, abdominal ______ to linea alba
- 1. Flex / Same / Rotate / Same | Flex & Compress
- 2. Inguinal / Iliac Crest / Thoracolumbar | Three / Abdominal Aponeurosis
- 3. Flex / Same / Rotate / Opposite | Flex / Compress
- 4. Eight | Iliac Crest / Aponeurosis
Shortening and Lengthening of the QL, Abdominals Diaphragm and Intercostals
1. Increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity would ______ the diaphragm's fibers
2. Passive rotation of vertebral column to same side would _____ the external oblique
3.Compression of the Abdominal contents would _____ the Transverse Abdominis
4. Drawing the ventral part of ribs toward would ______ the external intercostals
5. Passive rotation of vertebral column to opposite side would ____ the internal oblique.
- 1. Shorten
- 2. Lengthen
- 3. Shorten
- 4. Shorten
- 5. Lengthen
1. The _____ is a broad, ______ shape muscle that seperates the upper and lower thoracic cavities. It's fibers attach to inner surface of _____ and the ___ vertebrae and converge at the central tendon.
2. This muscle creates _______ when its fibers contract and pull the central tendon ______. Because the tendon is attached to the connective tissue of the lungs,, a _____ is created pulling air into the lungs.
3. On ______, the muscle fibers of diaphragm relax, releasing the central tendon and allowing the lungs to ______.
4. Another muscle, better known as the meat on spare ribs, the ______ are small, slender muscles between the ribs. They are devided into two groups; the ____ ____ and the ___ ___.
5. Their functions include ____ the rib cage and assiting in _____ (breathing). Since ribs are sensitive a slow ____ hand is needed for palpation.
- 1. Diaphragm / Umbrellalike / Rib / Lumbar
- 2. Inspiration / Inferiorly / Vacuum
- 3. Expiration / Deflate
- 4. Intercostals / External Intercostals and Internal Intercostals
- 5. Stabilizing / Respiration / Firm
1. ACTION: Draw down the ____ tendon of the ______ and ___ the volume of the thoracic cavity during _______
2. ORIGIN: Costal Attachment : Inner surface of lower ___ ribs | Lumbar attachment: Upper __ or ___ lumbar vertebrae | Sternal Attachment: Inner part of _____ process. | INSERTION: ___ tendon
3. ACTION: External : Assist with _____ by drawing ribs superiorly increasing thoracic cavity space. Internal: Assist with ______ by drawing ribs inferiorly, decreasing thoracic cavity space.
4. ORIGIN: _____ border of the ___ above | INSERTION: ____ border of the ___ below
- 1. Central / Diaphragm / Increase Inhalation
- 2. Six / 2 or 3 / Xiphoid Process / Central
- 3. Inhalation / Exhalation
- 4. Inferior / Rib | Superior / Rib
Other Structures of the Spine and Thorax
1. The ligamentum nuchae spans between the two bony landmarks External _____ ______ and the ____ processes of C-& in neck.
2. To feel the ligamentum nuchae change tension, perform the two passive movements ____ and ____ the head.
3. The _____ ligament can be felt between the spinous processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.
4. The abdominal aorta is located _____ to the psoas major.
5. The thoracolumbar aponeurosis serves as an attachment side to ____ ____ and the ____ ____ Group
- 1. Occipital Proturbance / Spinous
- 2. Flex and Extend
- 3. Supraspinous
- 4. Lateral
- 5. Latissmus Dorsi and Erector Spinae Group
1. When performing the Action of Rotation of the Spine to your right, which muscles are Synergists and to what side, your left or right?
2. What is the Antagonist and on what side?
- 1. External Oblique (Left - Opposite) and Internal Oblique (Right - Same)
- 2. Multifidi (Left - Opposite)
1. When performing the Action Extension of the Spine, what are the two Synergists?
2. When performing this action, what is the Antagonist?
- 1. Spinalis and Interspinalis
- 2. Rectus Abdominis
1. When performing the Action of Depression (Exhalation) of the Ribs, what is the two Synergists?
2. What is the Antagonist?
- 1. Internal Intercostals (assists) and Serratus Posterior Inferior
- 2. External Intercostals (assists)
1. When performing the Action Flexion of the Spine, what are the two Synergists?
2. What is the Antagonist?
- 1. External and Internal Oblique (Bilaterally)
- 2. Quadratus Lumborum
1. When performing the Elevation of the Ribs (Inhalation) what are the two Synergists?
2. What is the Antagonist?
- 1. SCM and Subclavis
- 2. Internal Intercostals
1. When peforming the Action Lateral Flexion of the Spine, what are the two Synergists?
2. What is the Antagonist?
- 1. Quadratus and External Oblique
- 2. Spinalis (Left)