1. Angiosperms are ___ plants
  2. Are angiosperms seed producing plants?
  3. ___ are the reproductive organs of angiosperms.
  4. What are stamens and what is their function?
    The stamen is the pollen producing reproductive organ of a flower. Typically consist of a filament and an anther (which contains microsporangia).
  5. A typical anther contains ___ microsporangia.
  6. Each microsporangium is lined with a nutritive tissue layer called the ___ and intially contains diploid pollen mother cells.
  7. What are the 4 main parts of a flower?
    • 1. Sepals
    • 2. Petals
    • 3. Carpels (pistil)
    • 4. Stamens
  8. Picture of flower parts.
  9. What is fragmentation?
    Fragmentation is a method of asexual reproduction that angiosperms have developed.

    Example: a large spreading or vining plant grows to several meters in length, and individual parts become self-sufficient by establishing adventitious roots.
  10. Sprophytes are always haploid or diplod?
  11. In plants, meiosis results in ___ spores.
  12. Plant spores cannot undergo syngamy, so what do they do?
    Plant spores undergo mitosis and grows into an entire new haploid plant called a gametophyte.
  13. What is a gametophyte?
    A gametophyte is the haploid, multicellular phase of plants and algae that undergo alternation of generation, with each of its cells containing only a single set of chromosomes.
  14. What is "alteration of generations"
    Alternation of generations is a term that refers to the life cycle of a plant.

    A multicellular sporophyte, which is diplod with 2n paired chromosomes, alternates with a multicellular gametophye, which is haploid with n inpaired chromosomes.
  15. Gametes are formed by the haploid plants by ___, not ___
    mitosis, meiosis
  16. There are 4 whorls, starting from the outermost, list what they are.
    • 1. Sepals (calyx)
    • 2. Petals (corolla)
    • 3. Stamens (androecium)
    • 4. Carpels (gynoecium)
  17. What two parts make up the stamen?
    • 1. Filament
    • 2. Anther
  18. What makes up the carpels?
    • 1. Stigma
    • 2. Style
    • 3. Ovary-Ovule
  19. What are microsporangia?
    Microsporangium is a sporangium that produces spores that give rise to male gametophytes.

    **In gymnosperms and angiosperms, the microsporangium produce the microsporocyte, also known as the microspore mother cell, which then creates four microspores through meiosis.
  20. What are microspores?
    Microspores develop into male gametophytes.
  21. What is the tube nucleus?
    One of the cells in the male gametophyte in seed plants. The tube nucleus grows through the stigma, style, and into the ovule,
  22. What is the generative nucleus?
    A haploid nucleus in a pollen grain that produces two sperm nuclei by mitosis.
  23. Explain double fertilization.
    Two sperms are required for double fertilization. Once sperm (1n) combines with the egg (1n) to form a zygote (2n).

    The second sperm (1n) combines with two polar nuclei (each being 1n) to form an endosperm (3n) nucleus.
  24. In double fertilization, the zygote divides by ___ to form an embryo.
  25. What are the 3 parts that make up the embryo.
    • 1. Cotyledon
    • 2. Epicotyl
    • 3. Hypocotyl
  26. ___ develops above the cotyledon and forms the stem.
  27. ___ develops below the cotyledon and forms the root.
  28. What is endosperm?
    Endosperm is a tissue which will provide nourishment for a germinating and growing embryo from a seed until it becomes autotrophic.
  29. What will form a seed coat surrounding the embryo and endosperm.
    The integuments
  30. What are complete flowers?
    • Complete flowers contain all four flower parts.
    • 1. sepals
    • 2. stamen
    • 3. carpels
    • 4. petals
  31. An ____ flower lack any of the 4 main flower parts.
  32. What is a perfect flower?
    A perfect flower is one that contains at least the stamen and carpel (pistil).
  33. What is an imperfect flower?
    Contains either a stamen or carpel (pistil)
  34. What are monoecious plants?
    Plant which contains imperfect flowers, both male and female flowers, on the same plant.

    Example: corn
  35. What is a dioecious plant?
    Plant which contains imperfect flowers, male or female flowers, on separate plants.

    Example: holly tree
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