Module 4

  1. The body's information system is built from billions of interconnected cells called:
  2. What are the 4 parts of a neuron? What are their functions?
    • Cell body- life support center of the neuron
    • Dendrites- Branching extensions at the cell body. Receives messages from other neurons
    • Axon- long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons.
    • Terminal Branches of axon- Branched ending of axons. Transmitting messages to other neurons.
  3. What is another name for the cell body?
  4. What are neurotransmitters?
    chemical messages from other cells.
  5. What part of the cell picks up neurotransmitters before they travel down to the axon?
  6. What helps speed the process of conduction to the termianal branches?
  7. What disease attachs the myelin sheath and causes messages to not be transmitted properly?
    Multiple sclorosis
  8. A neural impulse is also known as:
    the action potential
  9. What are terminal buttons and where are they located?
    they are the bulbs at the end of the terminal branches of the axon where neurotransmitters are released.
  10. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane is called:
    action potential
  11. Depolarization is:
    when positive ions enter the neuron making it more susceptible to fire an action potential.
  12. Hyperpolarization is:
    when negative ions enter the neuron making it less susceptible to fire an action potential.
  13. A cell at rest is:
  14. The firing of a neuron is called an
    action potential
  15. When a message travels down the axon and releases it's own neurotransmitter, this allows the channels to open btwn the lipid by-layer. What is this called?
    action potential
  16. A ligand is anything that will bind to something else. What are two examples of ligands?
    • nuerotransmitter
    • protein
  17. The hydrophobic outer covering of the cell membrane is called:
    lipid by-layer
  18. Which ion is a major player in the action potential?
    sodium, because there is not a lot of sodium in the cell
  19. The threshold of excitation is at what mV
    around -70mV
  20. When graphing polarization, which direction is associated with hyperpolarization and with depolarization?
    • moving up the graph is depolarization
    • moving down the graph is hyperpolarization
  21. Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential (EPSP) is:
    a voltage change in a more positive fashion making the neuron more likley to fire.
  22. Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential (IPSP) is:
    when voltage changes to a more negative state
  23. When a neuron has fired an action potential it pauses for a short period to recharge itself to fire again. This is known as:
    Refractory period
  24. What are sodium-potassium pumps?
    they pump positive ions out from the inside of the neuron, making them ready for another action potential.
  25. When depolarizing current exceeds the threshold a neuron will fire, and below threshold it won't. This is called:
    All-or-None response
  26. Does the intesity of an action potential change throughout the length of the axon?
    No, the intensity remains the same.
  27. What is the function of the sodium potassium pumps?
    Pumps 3 sodium ions out of the cell and brings in two positive charged potassium ions. It helps the cell remain at resting state and helps it return from the refractory state.
  28. Ways in which ions enter and leave the cell are through:
  29. The junction between the axon and the cell body where the action potential generates is called:
    axon hillock
  30. Diagram of neuron:
    Image Upload 1
  31. A PreSynaptic Neuron is the neuron that sends a message to the:
    Postsynaptic neuron
  32. A synapse cleft is:
    the gap btwn two neurons where the neurotransmitters are released and picked up by other neurons.
  33. What is a synapse?
    junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
  34. Synapse diagram:
    Image Upload 2
  35. Neurotransmitters released from the sending neuron, travel across the synapse and bind to ______ ______ on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential.
    receptor sites
  36. Neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of:
  37. What two things can reuptake do?
    • reduce the amount of nuerotransmitter in the synapse
    • guage how much neurotransmitters are puming out.
  38. What is the function of Seratonin transmitters?
    Mood regulation, hunger, sleep and arousal
  39. Dopamine is involved with what two diseases and how?
    • Schizphrenia & Parkinsons disease
    • too much dopamine causes schizophrenia
    • too little dopamine causes Parkinson's
  40. A lot of pharmacuticals work by increasing the neurotransmitters in the synapse. An example of a re-uptake inhibitors are
    MAOI anti-depressent drugs
  41. What is an example of a Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)?
  42. How do re-uptake inhibitor drugs work?
    They block the re-uptake site which allows more nuerotransmitters such as serotonin to be free flolating in the synapse. This increases the levels in our brain and makes the cell continue to pump it out.
  43. Dopamine is responsible for what in the body?
    movement, rewards system, addiction.
  44. Review this nuerotransmitter slide:
    Image Upload 3
  45. Benzodiazapines are drugs that do what? What is an example of a benzodiazapine?
    • enhance the action of the neurotransmitter, GABA(Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter whos function is to slow or calm things down.
    • Xanax is an example of a benzo
  46. What is an Agonoist? Example?
    • A drug or molecule that can mimic the actions of a neurotransmitter.
    • Morphine- mimics the action of endorphines
  47. What is an Antagonist? Example?
    • A drug or molecule that blocks the channel which prevents neurotransmitters from binding to the cell.
    • Curare poisioning blocks ACh receptors involved in muscle movement. (paralyzes the person)
  48. Central Nervous System (CNS) is
    the brain and spinal cord
  49. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    the sensory and motor nuerons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
  50. Study the nervous system slide:
    Image Upload 4
  51. Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors of the receiving neuron in a ________ _________ mechanism.
  52. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for what?
    • "fight or flight" response: slows down digestion, speeds up heart rate.
    • arousing nervous system
  53. the parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for what?
    • slowing everyrthing back down
    • calming nervous system.
  54. Sensory neurons vs motor nuerons
    • sensory--->afferent----->ascending up the body
    • motor------>efferent----->efferemt down the body
  55. Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS are called:
    Sensory Nuerons (bipolar)
  56. Neurons that carry information from the CNS to the muscles and glands are called:
    Motor Neurons (multipolar)
  57. Which neuron connects the sensory and the motor neurons?
    Interneuron (unipolar)
  58. What are the three types of glial cells and their function?
    • Astrocytes- provide nutrition to neurons
    • Oligodendrocytes &
    • Schwann cells both insulate the neurons with myelin
  59. The division of the body that controls the body's skeletal muscles is called:
    Somatic Nervous System
  60. Part of the PNS that controls the glands and other muscles is called:
    Autonomic Nervous System
  61. The nerves are part of what system?
    The peripheral nervous system
  62. A undersupply of serotonin is linked with what disease?
  63. Which drug is used to raise serotonin levels?
    Prozac- antidepressant
  64. Which neurotransmitter is depleated with Alzheimer's disease?
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
  65. What is the funtion of acetylcholine?
    enables muscle action, learning and memory.
  66. Norepinephrine nuerotransmitters control...
    alertness and arousal
  67. An example of an excitatory neurotransmitter that involved in memory is? What can too much of it cause?
    glutamte- too much=causes overstimulation in the brian-seizures & migraines
  68. The endocrine system is made of of what 7 glands and organs:
    • pituitary gland (controlled by hypothalamus)
    • thyroid gland
    • parathyroid gland
    • adrenal glands
    • pancreas
    • ovary
    • testis
  69. Chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands and secreted into the bloodstream are called?
  70. Which hormone increases heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar and feelings of excitement during an emergency situation?
    epinephrine (adrenaline)
  71. Which gland is the "master gland" and releases hormones to regulate other glands? Where is it located in the brain?
    • Pituitary gland
    • posterior lobe
  72. Thyroid gland effects what? Parathyroid effects what?
    • thyroid-metabolism
    • parathyroids- regulates the levels of calcium in the blood
  73. Which two parts make up the adrenal gland and what are their functions?
    • medulla- triggers fight or flight, releases epinephrine or norepinephrine)
    • adrenal cortex- regulates salt and carbohydrate metabolism.
  74. The pancreas is responsible for
    regulating the level of sugar in blood
  75. Sex glands or ___________ are responsible for regulating what?
    • gonads
    • body development & maintain reproductive organs in adults.
  76. What are the 2 sex organs and what do they secrete?
    • testis- male sex hormones
    • ovary- female sex hormones
  77. What are the four lobes of the brain and where are they located?
    • frontal- forehead
    • parietal- top to rear of head
    • occipital- back
    • temporal- side
    • Image Upload 5
Card Set
Module 4
Exam 2