History 311 Ch 23-1

  1. "Yesterday, December 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - tge United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan"
    Franklin D. Roosevelt Dec 7, 1941
  2. When did wwII start and how?
    Dec 7 1941 Jap naval convoy, headed to hawaii, 250 miles off of hawaiin island of oahu, 6:00am, Admiral Chuichji Nagumo launched 2 attacks waves of bombers torpedos planes, dive bomber attached pearl harbor battle ships sitting in a row.
  3. Why was all of the battleships in Hawaii?
    Roosevelt wanted to pressure Japan to back off from China, but gave Japs an inviting target. Sent US Pacifi fleets to Hawaii. He figured they were far enough to escape attack but close enough to drive out the Western powers out of East Asia.
  4. What damage did the Japs cause at Pearl Harbor?
    sank or damaged 18 ships and killed 2405 americans.
  5. What did congress do?
    Declared war the day after. Then Dec 11, Germany and Italy declared war on the US, Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungry.
  6. What did interventionists and non-interventionists fight about?
    Still coping with the social and financial problems created by the great depression, non-interventionists urged the nation to put "America First" and stay out of overseas conflicts. By the late 30's interventionists challenged this view arguing that only direct engagement could prevent the world conglageration from reaching american shores.
  7. What is a facist state?
    Started by Germany, Italy and Spain, it was a state that glorifed the government over the people.
  8. What did nazism do to Jews?
    Stripped their German citizenship, could not practice medicine, lar, attend public school after the age of 14, enter public parks or libraries.Promising to restore Germany's economic and military and "racial superiority" Hiltler rearmed the country and sought allies.
  9. What did Gerald P Nye, Senator of ND do?
    Chair of Senate Investigations in the mid-thirties role that American arms manufacturers had played in the decision to go into WW1. No conspiracy found, however concensous was that America wanted war to continue profitable arms sales and were rooting for the Allies. When foriegn loans defaulted during depression, american sentiment was iritated by helping foriegn countries.
  10. What are the Neutrality Acts?
    ensuring that trading with belligerent nations did not drag the country into another war congress passed a series of laws from 1935-1939 to restrict gun sales, loans, and transport of goods with nations at war. Non-Interventionist liked due to avoiding overseas involvement in conflicts that didnt threaten the US. 1935 Act: prohibited sale of arms and ammo to nations at war. Act of 1936 barred all loans to waring nations. Act of 1937: allowed waring nations to purchase no war goods and pay cash for them. They must transport on their own ships: Called Cash and Carry.
  11. What did FDR do in his "Quarentine" speech?
    He challenged the non-interventionist vision which urged peach loving countries to isolate aggressor nations and seek peace. Non-Inters were pissed and accused FDR of turning the US into policemen. Then he publically reaffirmed his support for the Nuetrality Acts.
  12. Did Congress try to make a constitutional ammendment concerning war?
    1938 congress considered a constitutional ammendment that required public approval through a national referendum for any declaration of war except when attacked. Never approved in Congress
  13. What did the Germans do to unify german speaking countries?
    Germany violated the terms of the Versailles Treaty by rearming and threatening neighbors. Britian and France did not want to go back to war so they settled with talks. Most europeans felt Germany got a bad deal with the treaty so Hilters terms seem reasonable. He wanted: reuniting german speaking people into one nation. Britain and France agreed at the Munich Conference in 1938 to let Germany occupy the sudetenland.
  14. What did Hitler believe about Europe?
    He believed the Western democracies were too weak to oppose militarily. Arguing germany need living space in eastern europe. His Master Plan was to to displace inferior slavic countries and to exterminate all jews. Resolving to fight one war at a time.
  15. What did Hitler do with Josef Stalin in 1939?
    signed a non agression pact (the dictator of the soviet union). Agreed to partition Poland, and other parts of Eastern Europe. Ensured eastern borders were peaceful when it attach western and southern europe.
  16. What caused Britain and France to declare war of Germany?
    When hitler attached Poland, Britian and France declared war 1939
  17. When did the massive assualt on Western Europe begin?
    in 1940 by invading Norway and Denmark. Marched through Luxembourg, holand, and Belgium to invade France. Maay 1940 Germanys Blitzkrieg (lightening war) punched holes in the French defense system and then sent tanks, infantry, artillery and aircraft through openings disrupting communications and threaten the French army from the rear. Hitlers pompus arse posed in front of the eifell tower.
  18. What did italy do at France's fall?
    Joined Germany and were called the Axis, quickly took control of Eastern Europe and the Balkans.
  19. What were the British doing during the time?
    The British Army escaped capture at the French port town in DunKirk. A year Britain fought Germany alone, surviving a massive bombing campaign known as the battle of britain. .
  20. What did Hitler do to the Soviet Union?
    That changed in 6/1941 when hitler invaded the Soviet Union. With British forces off the continent, he wanted to conquer russia. Instead of advancing straight to Moscow, the germans found themselves in a massive battle along a wide eastern front.
  21. Who did the Americans support during this time? Allies or Axis?
    Allies, 84% 2% axis.
  22. What was FDR doing behind the scene?
    He had to appease the non-interventionists, however he knew inaction would lead to catastrophe. The Neutrality act of 1939 was revised to include munitions aws well as non-war related goods.
  23. Why did FDR run for president a third time?
    the shock of France falling to Nazi control undoubtably influenced his decision to run again. Selected a liberal New Dealer, Henry wallace as vice caused some grumbling among conservative democrates who still rallied around him.
  24. What was FDR's campaign like?
    He argued that the nation should offer help it could to the Allies short of entering war. Wendell Willkie the challenger had an anti-New Deal rhetoric which did not do well with voters.
  25. How did talks between FDR and Winston Churchill go?
    FDR proposed turning america into a great arsenal of democracy. By telephone and telegraph, Winston Churchill, pressed FDR for aid. Stressing America's vulnerability, Churchill warned that overwhelming sea power would be in Hitlers hands in Germany defeated Britian. FDR agreed to trade 50 old american destroyers for a 99 yr lease on 7 british air and naval bases in the western hemisphere. He invited a leading interventionist, Republican Henry Stimson to join as Secretary of war.
  26. What did Dr. Suess author Theodore Geisel do?
    Before gaining fame in the 50's for his cat in the hat he drew editorial cartoons for PM, a short lived left wing new york magazine that denounced non-intervention as a folly.
  27. What happened to Britian in 1941?
    They had run out of cash and nuetrality laws prohibited the US from loaning out $. FDR jedi mind tricked and made a policy of Lend and Lease that loaned rather than sold arms to Britain. The lend lease bill worked through congress. Prohibited the US from escorting British convoys carrying american goods through the atlantic.This also extended to the USSR in 41.
  28. What happened with the repayment of the lend lease agreement with Britian and USSR?
    No one ever expected them to pay it back. Harry Truman accepted favorable postwar trade relations as repayment from Britian and demanded 2.6 billion from the soviets. They did not pay it back until 1991 with the fall of communism.
  29. What happened with British ships with american ammunition?
    German subs patrolling the atlantic warned sending arms to Britian was like pouring water int a leaky bathtub (henry stimson sec of war. American destroyer Greer gave chase to a german sub and exchanged fire, FDR envoked commander in chief to escort all ships to Britian and shoot on sight. Months before Pearl Harbor, US was fighting an undeclared naval war.
  30. What was the catalysts that entered America into WWII?
    In the Pacific, when Jap pilots attached Pearl harbor, 12/6/1941 a neat line of battleships. It was a culmination of 2 decades of tension with the US and Jap. Jap desire to become a major power in the Pacific was alarming to the US. Japan did not like the monroe doctorine or the Roosevelt Corollary. Japan wanted to build the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Shere. Japs invasions of China's Manchuria began the direct confrontation between jap and US. Claiming Manchuria was Japs, they were able to claim all raw materials and industry to further Japans endevors.
  31. What did the Japs do to the Chinese in 1937?
    Japs attacked China and unleased a brutal conquest. Imfamous Rape of Naking, a Chinese city over 350000 Chinese died. 20000 women were raped, tortured and executed. Their babies were impailed and boiled alive. 6 mill chinese died at the hand of japs for the next 8 years.
  32. What did FDR do to Japan?
    FDR wanted to contain Japan with a series of economic sanctions and warnings. Hoping that a show of force would convince Hapan to abandon its imperial ambitions, the US stationed its fleet in the Pacific. FDR sent aid to china in 1940 and a limit embargo on scrap iron and high octane aviation fuel to japs.. Jap then siezed part of the French Indochina, a french colony on SE Asia (Vietnam). In response the US announced a total embargo on scrap metal shipments. The follow day Tokyo signed tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy an agreement dedicated to "the establishment of a new order" in East Asia and Europe. No strategic coordiination between Europe and Asian theaters were done. They just shared mutual enemies.
  33. What did the US do to Japan when it increased into French Indochina in the summer of 1941?
    US Froze jap assets in the US and stopped oil shipments (which accounted for 4/5ths of japs supply). The Japs continued to talk to the US, but war was imminant. They had decided to push the brits and us out fo SE Asia.
  34. What did the Japs do to the naval fleet?
    They failed to destroy Americas Pacific Fleet. Fearing couter attack Nagumo on the day of the attack called off the 3rd wave on storage tanks of fuel oil and repair facilities. Most sailors survived the attack in Hawaii. and the Navy repaired 6 of the 8 damaged ships.. 2 aircraft carriers were stationed elsewhere. Japs continued to attack american territories and countries in the SE Asia over the next 24 hrs. This gave hope to Churchill
  35. Did Hawaii have a warning to the bombing?
    By december american commanders expected a Jap attack against American Pacific Possessions. Most US overlooked Hawaii as a potential target. A telegram sent to take the sirens serious, sent after the bombing began.
  36. What sort of discrimination to Asias ensued after Pearl Harbor?
    Asian pre war were already discriminated against with laws preventing asians from owning land, immigration targeting their american born children, segregation laws, not able to be citizens. Life and Time mags published an article on how to tell the difference between japs and chinese. It showed the psuedo racial characteristics between the two races (beard and all), US eased up on the Chinese by allowing 105 immigrants a yr and allowed them to naturalize. Chinese embacy gave out "I am Chinese" pins to where.
  37. What was the Bataan Death March?
    April 1942, American/Filipino solders surrendered their position in Bataan Peninsula in the Phillipines. Their captors forced the sick, starving troops to walk almost 90 miles through the intense heat and jungle to a prisoner war camp. out 76000 men, 22000 died.
  38. What did Ernie Pyle write?
    In europe we felt that our enemies, horrible and deadly as they were, were still people. He wrote in a newspaper column towards the end of the war. "But out here I soon gathered that the Japanese were looked upon as something subhuman and repulsive; the same way people feel about cockroaches and mice. The consensous was to focus on Hitler and Nazism rather than the german people.
  39. What happened with the internment camps?
    1/3 of Hawaiians population was Japs. They were suspected of spying, but nothing ever came about it. There did not have the ability to transport them because of no ships and it would have been a nasty hit on the Hawaiian economy. In CA OR WA, 110000 japs lived where they were not vital. The day after the attacks on pearl, a jap submarine torpedoed an american ship off the coast of CA. Officals feard the west coast would be under attack and issued black outs. Plants were camoflauged. On Feb 19 1942, FDR signed an executive order 9066, to declare certain areas off limits to certain people. LT General John L DeWitt declared the entire west coast a military zone and closed to all person of Jap ancestory. Mid March 1942 FDR created the War Relocation Authority to oversee the forced removal of 38000 Jap immigrants and 72000 american jap citizens to internment camps. Evacuees were only allowed to take what they could carry and #'s were pinned on their chest.
  40. Who was Dorothea Lange?
    Lange was hired to document that the government was treating the evacuees humanely as it contained the japs. She was able to capture a scene of a japanese american veteran reporting to santa anita assembly center in his old military uniform, a silent demo of his long standing loyalty to the US
  41. Who were the 442nd Regimental Combat Team?
    January 1942 the army decide to recruit nisei men, the american birn children of jap immigrants. joined from hawaii to for the 442nd regimental combat team. One of the most decorated unit in America.
  42. What finally happened with the internment camps?
    In 1945, the US let the inmates return home. 3 years later the des offered restitution to any who lost their homes or businesses. It wasn't until 1988 for congress to offer an apology and reparation payment of 20000 to each of the 60000 surviving interness.
  43. How was the economy during the war?
    Japs were among the few to suffer financially. Most american jobs were plentiful. The gross national product rose 60% and 17 million new jobs were created to mobilie the economy and to convert business into wartime footing. $ flowing into the economy sent prices soaring, government issued price and wage controls. Gas and sugar coupon rations were sent out. To conserve wool and cotton, and nylon, the War Production Board (WPB) dictated fashion trends forbidding tailors to make cuffs, vestts, or double breasted jackets for men. Also meant skin tight bathing suits, and hemlines on skirts grew higher to conserve fabric.
  44. How much did the federal government spend?
    expanded the federal budget to 9 billion, in 1939 to 100 billion by 1945. THe military grew from 227000 to 16 million of who 10 million conscripted. American industry prodduced 77000 ships 300000 airplanes 2.5 million trucks, and 20 million small arms for american and allied armed forces. 15 million civilian relocated to take advatage of war time oppurtunities booming: LA, New Orleans, Seattle, Detroit and Phiadelphia. Labor workers had to live in public buildings, warehouse and garages.
  45. What happen with the ladies in terms of labor?
    To combat growing shortages of labor, the Manpower Commision allured Mrs. Stay at home in the wartime workforce. 19 million women held jobs during that time. Only 3 million new demail workers entered the wartime workforce. Over 350000 women served in the armed forces including 150000 in womens army corps press named the WACs the Petticoat Army. and their quarters Fort Lipstick. The recruiting slogan was "release a man for combat". Femail soldiers served as gunnery instructors, mechanics, truck drives and 1000 women even flew combat aircraft from domestic manufactures to oversea bases. General Douglas MacAurthor called female troops his best soldiers.
  46. Why was the female workforce short lived?
    Once victory seemed ensured in 1944 the government sponsered progaganda reversed course. It embrased a vision the emphasized women's domestic responsibilities instead of their public dities. The Saturday Evening Post carried this "mothers at Work" ad that urged women to consider the toll of working outside the home had on children. The overall % of women working returned to 28% (wartime 38%) in 1947 as women quit their jobs.
  47. What made WWII particularly beneficial for the American Economy?
    The war effort withdrew 16 million servicemen and womnd from the workforce just a millions of new postions were created creating a labor shortage. Massive government spending on war which ended the depression. If the govt spend 323 bill (total cost of war) on New Deal programs, the depression would have ended a lot sooner. It took until 1970 to pay off the war.
  48. What di Secretary of War Henry L, Stimson say about Business?
    "If you are going to...go to war... in a captialist country, you have to let business make money out of the proces or business won't work"
  49. What happened with the blacks in the country?
    Using a the war to promote a DOUBLE VICTORY CAMPAIGN, against both facism overseas and racial prejudices at home, activists promoted a vision of a color blind society. The wartime boom threatened to leave the blacks behind, then in 1941 the AA labor leader A. Philip Randolph threatened to assemble 10000 blacks in the dront of the Lincoln Memorial in DC to "demand the right to work and fight for our country."
  50. What did Randolph do?
    His idea to mark on DC attracted civil rights groups and the ire of the white house. FDR tried to convince Randolph to call off the march. FDR agreed to issue an executive order forbading discrimination in the defense industry and government if randolf canceled the march. The order also established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to handle complaints of discrimination. This inspired Martin Luther Kings march in 1963.
  51. What did the Fellowship of Reconciliation's Committee on Racial Justice initiate?
    a wave of sit-ins where groups of black and whites entered segregated restaurants together and refused to leave when denied service. DC Howard University students picketed segregated restaurants with sighs that read: We die together, lets eat together. Are you for Hitlers Way or the American Way, make up your mind.
  52. How did the blacks do in the war?
    1 million blacks served in the armed forces during the war including Brigadier General Benjermin O Davis the first black to general in the US army. Agreed to train black pilots, and the Tuskegee Airmen came out with an admirable war record. The military was segregated. Their jobs were mainly noncomnatant units, clearing mines off of beaches in France, manned supply lines of food and ammo, built roads and rail lines for advancing armys.
  53. What is a zoot suit?
    A fashion trend made popular by black men in the 30's. youths who wore baggy pants, long oversized coats, and broad brimmed hats. Mexicans picked this up in CA. Sailors clashed with them. They were called juvenile delinquents. pauchucos as zoot suiters called themselves. They went on a crimnal spree in gangs bent on robbery and rape. Rioting ensued and people stripped the zoot suiters of their clothes and beat them. People praised them for ridding the streets of hoodlums and gangsters. Mexicans represented 500000 who fought in WWII and were represent among medal winners for the phillipines defense,
  54. How were the Native Americans viewed in WWII?
    They were percieved as natural born warriors. They encountered less hostility then black and latinos. More that 25000 NA served. Famed Navajo code talkers who transmitted secret messages between units in their native language, baffling the japs, who never deciphered it. This allowed a lot of them to leave the reservation for the first time.
  55. What was justice hugo blacks vison on Korematsu v us 1944? What was Justice Frank Murphy?
    Black wrote the majority opinion tthat upheld the constitutionality of interning Jap americans. Murphy: disagreed with the majority opinion arguing that the internment was racially motivated.
Card Set
History 311 Ch 23-1
History 311 Ch 23-1