1. Foraging
    the acquisition of food by hunting, fishing, or the gathering of plant matter.
  2. Sagittal Crests
    A ridge of bone located at the sagittal suture along the midline of the cranium. The more highly developed the sagittal crest, the more highly developed the masticatory muscles are. Appears in gorillas and orangutans, and in some human and primate ancestors.
  3. Grooming behavior
    The way primates groom each other. This functions as a bonding for two members of a social group, a calming process for a primate that is being groomed, or an appeasement for the primate that is higher in dominance.
  4. Large upper canines
    Large, sharp teeth in the upper region of the mouth. All primates have 1 canine per quadrant in their dentition.
  5. Mother-offspring bonds
    Primate mothers invest a lot of time and energy in caring for each of their offspring. This increases the chances of their species' survival.
  6. Opposable thumbs
    Thumbs that can touch each of the 4 fingertips enabling a grasping ability.
  7. Reliance on sense of smell
    Primates have a reduced reliance on sense of smell. But prosimians continue to rely on a well-developed sense of smell.
  8. Color vision
    Throughout their evolutionary history primates have developed color vision. This is crucial for spotting insects and other prey within the surrounding vegetation.
  9. Monkeys
    • New world: Cebids and Marmosets
    • Old world: Baboons and Macaques, Colobuses and Langurs, Guenons and Mangabeys

    Anthropoidea with humans and apes
  10. Lemurs
    A member of the prosimians that are terrestrial and arboreal.

    Superfamily of lemuriforms
  11. Baboons
    A member of the old world monkeys

    Genus cercopithecinae.
  12. Tamarins
    A member of the new world monkeys

    Subfamily cebidae, superfamily platyrrhini
  13. 2 suborders of primates
    Prosimii (prosimians) and Anthropoidea (monkeys, apes, humans)
  14. Prehensile tails
    Tails that act as a kind of hand for support in trees, common in new world monkeys.
  15. Orangutans
    A member of the great apes

    Superfamily hominoidea
  16. Altruistic behaviors
    A behavior that benefits others while being a disadvantage to the individual
  17. Dominance rank
    The way primates are ranked in terms of dominance.
  18. Chimp culture
    Chimps use tools so they are considered to have culture.
  19. Miss Waldron's red colobus
    Discovered in December 1933, Miss Waldron's Red Colobus is a subspecies of the Western Red Colobus native to West Africa. It has not been officially sighted since 1978 and was considered extinct in 2000. However, new evidence suggests that a very small number of these monkeys may be living in the southeast corner of Ivory Coast.
  20. Koko
    A lowland gorilla who is able to understand more than 1,000 signs based on American Sign Language,[1] and understand approximately 2,000 words of spoken English.
  21. Parental Investment
    Primate parents provide prolonged care for fewer but smarter, more socially complex, and longer-lived offspring
  22. Quadrupedalism
    Walking on all four legs
  23. Suspensory locomotion
    Movement by swinging, often through the trees.
  24. Masticatory muscles
    Muscles involved in chewing.
  25. Solitary primates
    Primates that are alone.
  26. Jane Goodall
    A scientist that lived with chimpanzees and observed them to document their behaviors and everyday life.
  27. Arboreal adaptations
    Physical traits that enable an organism to live in trees.
  28. Precision grip
    A precise grip in which the tips of the fingers and thumbs come together, enabling fine manipulation.
  29. Enhanced sense of vision
    Primates' eyes rotated forward from the sides of the head to the front of the head, resulting in the 2 fields of vision overlapping thus creating depth perception. Also they developed color vision.
  30. Apes
    Gibbons, orangutans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas.

    Catarrhini infraorder with humans and old world monkeys
  31. Orthograde posture
    Basically another name for bipedalism (walking upright).
  32. Prosimians
    The more primitive primates.

    A suborder of primates
  33. Gibbons
    A member of the lesser apes

    Subfamily hylobatidae
  34. Platyrrhines
    New world monkeys. Platyrrhine nostrils are wound and separated by a wide nasal septum.

    Superfamily under the anthropoidea, arboreal
  35. Anthropoids
    The higher primates. They have larger brains, they are more dimorphic sexually in body size and other anatomical characteristics, they have fewer teeth, their eyes are convergent and enclosed by a continuous ring of bone, and they see in color.
  36. Catarrhines
    Nostrils that are close together and point downward.

    Infraorder that categorizes hominoidea and cercopithecoidea
  37. Sexual Dimorphism in canine size
    The males have the bigger canines
  38. Female primate reproduction
    Females compete with each other for resources that enable them to care for young.
  39. Primate brain size
    Primate brains are large and complex.
  40. Nocturnal primate communication
    Some primates have to vocalize at night since sometimes they cannot see each other.
  41. Infanticide
    The killing of a juvenile.
  42. Ape language experiments
    Experiments to see if Apes can understand humans.
  43. Brachiation
    A form of movement by arm-swinging.
Card Set
Anthropology exam 2