The shifting standards phenomena occurs most readily when _____.
either subjective or objective scales are used for either within-group or between-group comparisons
D) subjective scales are used for within-group comparisons
____ refers to hiring based on group membership or to situations in which individuals perform trivial positive actions for out-group members, then use this as an excuse for not taking more meaningful positive actions at a different time.
Different emotions underlie prejudice and may _____.
B) give rise to different discriminatory actions
Implicit associations are _____.
A) links between group membership and evaluative responses
_____ occurs when one stimulus is used to make related information more accessible in memory.
_____ can be automatically elicited by members of racial or ethnic groups and can influence behavior.
A) Implicit racial attitudes
Collective guilt is most likely to occur when _____.
B) harmful actions are seen as illegitimate
_____ are beliefs about the traits or characteristics that particular social groups are thought to share.
_____ is the classical conditioning of attitudes by exposure to stimuli that are below an individual's threshold of awareness.
E) Subliminal conditioning
The _____ is based on the observation that offering people small rewards for engaging in behaviors that are opposed to their true attitudes produces greater attitudinal changes than does offering them large rewards.
A) less-leads-to-more effect
Persuasion can occur in either of two ways that differ in terms of _____.
C) the amount of cognitive processing involved
suggests that our decisions to engage in particular behaviors is the result of a rational process.
a)The theory of reasoned action
b)The spreading of alternatives
c)The attitude-to-behavior process model
d)The elaboration likelihood model
e)The systematic processing theory
The theory of reasoned action
_____ occurs when a group of individuals collectively misunderstands what attitudes others hold, and erroneously believes that others have different attitudes than those of the group.
C) Pluralistic ignorance
The _____ allows us to protect ourselves from unwanted or unflattering views of ourselves.
B) ego-defensive function of attitudes
Our attitudes toward an object can become more positive because we have previously seen the object. This is known as _____.
B) the mere exposure effect
_____ is a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a reaction originally evoked by a different stimulus.
B) Classical conditioning
Stereotype threat causes decrements in performance, possible because ____________.
E. Stereotype threat increases anxiety
The process of comparing our own performance to that of someone who is less capable is known as downward social comparison.
When Karen was recently asked to describe herself to her classmates, she spoke about being a student and a member of her class. She pointed out the similarities and differences between herself and her fellow students. Karen was primarily making ____________ comparisons.
One basic form of learning that helps to form our attitudes occurs when a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to cause reactions that were originally caused by another stimulus. This type of learning is known as ________________.