_____ are beliefs about the traits or characteristics that particular social groups are thought to share.
_____ is the classical conditioning of attitudes by exposure to stimuli that are below an individual's threshold of awareness.
E) Subliminal conditioning
The _____ is based on the observation that offering people small rewards for engaging in behaviors that are opposed to their true attitudes produces greater attitudinal changes than does offering them large rewards.
D) less-leads-to-more effect
Persuasion can occur in either of two ways that differ in terms of _____.
B) the amount of cognitive processing involved
suggests that our decisions to engage in particular behaviors is the result of a rational process.
a)The theory of reasoned action
b)The spreading of alternatives
c)The attitude-to-behavior process model
d)The elaboration likelihood model
e)The systematic processing theory
The theory of reasoned action
_____ occurs when a group of individuals collectively misunderstands what attitudes others hold, and erroneously believes that others have different attitudes than those of the group.
D) Pluralistic ignorance
The _____ allows us to protect ourselves from unwanted or unflattering views of ourselves.
C) ego-defensive function of attitudes
Our attitudes toward an object can become more positive because we have previously seen the object. This is known as _____.
D) the mere exposure effect
_____ is a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a reaction originally evoked by a different stimulus.
e) Instrumental conditioning
C) Classical conditioning
Stereotype threat causes decrements in performance, possible because ____________.
A. Stereotype threat increases anxiety
The process of comparing our own performance to that of someone who is less capable is known as downward social comparison.
When Karen was recently asked to describe herself to her classmates, she spoke about being a student and a member of her class. She pointed out the similarities and differences between herself and her fellow students. Karen was primarily making ____________ comparisons.
One basic form of learning that helps to form our attitudes occurs when a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to cause reactions that were originally caused by another stimulus. This type of learning is known as ________________.