Political Science Test 2

  1. AARP
    largest voluntary association in America, and one of the biggest interest groups
  2. Agenda Setting
    occurs when the media affects which issues and problems people think about, even if the media do not determine what positions people adopt (generally effects people who are uninterested/uninformed about politics)
  3. Alabama and Florida
    1/3 of their black adult male population is ineligible to vote because of imprisonment
  4. American people
    tend to be non-ideological
  5. Americans vote ____ compared to other countries
    at much lower levels
  6. �Amicus curiae�
    �friend of the court� briefing that can be sent to attempt and help the Supreme Court form a decision. (involved in �litigation�)
  7. Auto-workers
    well-informed and have particularly strong views on foreign imports
  8. Bigham Powell estimates (voter turnout)
    10-15% turnout rate difference between America and Europe can be accounted for by our electoral institutions
  9. Brown v. BoE (major interest group
  10. boycott
    refusing to accept service or goods from a particular company for specific reasons
  11. Cable Television
    devoted the highest percentage of its overall news to election coverage
  12. Children
    typically have similar party identification as their parents
  13. �Citizen Journalists�
    bloggers on the internet.
  14. Civil War interest group situation
    very few before, decent amount after
  15. Club for Growth
    advocates less government regulation of the economy
  16. CNN Effect
    purported ability of TV to raise a distant foreign affairs situation to national prominence by broadcasting vivid pictures
  17. Coercion
    Social pressure or force to make people join in a collective effort (state BAR association for lawyers in some states..)� this is to overcome the free-rider problem.
  18. Community work
    the second most popular type of political participation
  19. Compositional effect
    a shift in the behavior of a group that results from a change in the group's composition, rather than a change in the behavior of individuals already in the group.
  20. Compulsory vote
    punishment for not voting (Aust., Belg., Greece, Italy)
  21. Conservative argument (on voter turnout)
    In low conflict, we should expect low voter turnout, and vice versa.
  22. Constituents of the free rider problem
    unnoticeable individual contribution, people receiving the benefit regardless of their effort.
  23. Constitution on voting
    left it up to the states. Many states had restrictions based on property and some religious
  24. Consumer Bankers Association
    strongly opposed the shift of federal student loans
  25. Cynical Argument (on voter turnout)
    Elections are charades, real decisions are made by elites, voting is only to ease the minds of the masses, so elections don't matter.
  26. Daily Show
    largest percentage of highly informed viewers
  27. Direct Action of Interest Groups
    involves everything from peaceful sit-ins and demonstrations to riots and even rebellions.
  28. Direct mail
    computer-generated communication by interest groups to people who might be sympathetic to an appeal for money or support
  29. Early Newspapers
    no reporters, they basically printed anything and everything
  30. Earth Day
    started in 1970, sparked the environmental movement
  31. Ed Shultz
    testified at a congressional hearing on the subject of immigrant labor
  32. Elections in US are typically held on
    Tuesdays. Other countries make it Sundays or make it a holiday to increase voter turnout.
  33. Electioneering
    the fastest-growing group tactic used to influence public policy
  34. Elitist argument (on voter turnout)
    Quality of electoral decisions are higher, if we don't try as hard for voter motorization, because nonvoters are less educated than voters. (Don't try and change things because we have better decisions made when only educated people vote).
  35. Embedded Reporters
    reporters assigned to travel with specific infantry battalions in wars
  36. Equal-time rule
    licensing condition by FCC that requires any station that gives or sells time to a legally qualified candidate for public office makes equal time available to all candidates on equal terms
  37. Exit Poll
    interviewing for research directly after you cast your vote
  38. Fairness doctrine
    FCC regulation, enforced between 1949 and 1987, that required stations to air contrasting viewpoints on matters of public importance and to give public figures who had been criticized on any of the station�s programs a free opportunity to reply.
  39. Family Political Values
    the most influential on your political beliefs. Most important socializing agent as well
  40. FCC
    responsible for regulating broadcast media
  41. Federal Government license
    radios need these to operate
  42. Fifteenth Amendment
    race outlawed as a criterion for voting (1870)
  43. First public display of television
    NY�s World Fair in 1939 (10 years later 6% of the country owned a TV.. jumped to 45% by �52 and 90% by �59)
  44. First televised presidential debate
    John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon
  45. focus group
    small groups of trained researchers lead an open-ended discussion of various subjects or
  46. candidates
  47. forms of political participation
    participating at an event, voting, lobbying government officials, proposing referendums
  48. framing
    occurs when the media induce people to think about an issue along particular lines, as opposed to others
  49. franchise
    the right to vote
  50. free-rider problem
    people can enjoy the benefits of group activity without bearing any of the costs
  51. Gallup Organization
    company deals with opinion research. Invented the �presidential approval question�
  52. generic ballot question
    asks whether the voter intends on voting republican or democrat
  53. George W. Bush
    lowest approval rating in recorded history
  54. Government influence depends on
    groups that vote � thats the reason they pay more attention to the AARP rather than college students
  55. The Gannett Company
    largest newspaper corporation
  56. The Grange
    One of the oldest interest groups
  57. Grass-Roots Lobbying
    attempts by groups and associations to influence elected officials indirectly through their constituents
  58. Grass-Tops Lobbying
    an interest group makes an ad for a supporter or member of congress locally, then plays the ad in that member�s district. The assumption is that key supporters of the congressional member are on the interest group�s side. Key supporters may be more influential that regular voters.
  59. Gun Control Laws
    Americans favor them tougher
  60. Highly-educated people vote
    more than those without a formal education. Whites also tend to be more educated.
  61. How to develop social capital
    volunteer, checking up on elderly neighbors, attending political meetings or religious services
  62. Hypodermic model of explaining media
    media has a direct and powerful capacity to put ideas into people�s heads
  63. Ideology
    a system of beliefs in which one or more organizing principles connect the individual's views on a wide range of particular issues
  64. Increasing perceived impact
    interest groups reformulating their appeals to suggest small contributions have a concrete impact
  65. Information costs
    the mental time and effort required to absorb and store information
  66. Interest groups formed mainly (subjects)
    around economic interests
  67. Interest groups formed mainly (time)
    in waves (Civil War, Progressive Era, MAINLY Post 60s)
  68. Interest group incentives
    solidarity (social reasons), material (economic reasons), purposive (advancing social and political goals)
  69. Interest groups may not include
    all of its potential membership (mostly about 1% of its potentials!)
  70. Also, not all interests form groups.
  71. Interest Group
    organization or association of people with common interests that engages in politics on behalf of its members
  72. Internet as a medium for news
    most young people get political news from here than anywhere else. The use of the internet as a news source has doubled every four years from 1996 on. (5�11�.21.. etc)
  73. Issue Advocacy
    advertising campaigns that attempt to influence public opinion in regard to a specific policy proposal.
  74. Issue networks
    a loose constellation of larger numbers and committees, agencies, interest groups, and policy experts active in a particular policy area
  75. Issue publics
    groups of people affected by or concerned with specific issues
  76. Late 19th Century Voter Turnout Increase
    some people were paid to vote, thats why.
  77. Law of Anticipated Reactions
    public opinion influencing government even though it does so indirectly and passively
  78. Laws regarding federal campaign financing
    It is illegal to send out information attacking their opponent, illegal to accept non-regulated donations, illegal to accept many from a non-citizen, illegal to use government funds to fund campaigns, it's okay to use your own money.
  79. Least tolerant people
    those with a high school diploma or less
  80. Litigation
    involves carrying out a legal strategy to utilize court decisions to support the interest group�s goals (example
  81. Loaded Questions
    yield the response desired by those who commissioned the poll
  82. Lobbying
    interest group activities intended to influence directly the decisions that public officials make
  83. Lobbyist
    someone who engages in lobbying � can be full time or part time, they are the �hired guns� with contracts and expertise, some are affiliated with a particular party, leaders of groups do double duty as lobbyists. They are very concerned with maintaining their long-term relationships with public officials
  84. Local TV news
    most people get their information from this news source
  85. M.A.D.D.
    Interest group that was the driving force behind National Minimum Drinking Age Act
  86. Magazines as a medium for news
    they are increasingly marginal as a news source, growing in numbers but few talk about government and politics. Time and Newsweek are the best kind.
  87. Main modern benefit of voting
    psychological (civic duty)
  88. Majority Group Deterrent
    district-based representation means members of Congress have different constituencies.
  89. Margin of Error
    the answers provided by a random sample of 1500 Americans on any political question would fall within 3 % points of national opinion 95% of the time
  90. Mass media
    forms of communication that are technologically capable of reaching most people and economically affordable to most. Existed for less than 200 years. Political power is related to the control of this information
  91. Mass public
    ordinary people for whom politics is a peripheral concern
  92. Material benefits
    the dominant incentive to join economic groups or associations
  93. Measurement error
    the error that arises from attempting to measure something as subjective as opinion
  94. Media effect on public opinion
    only marginal sway on preexisting views
  95. Media Mobilization
    not as effective as personal campaigning
  96. Military
    receives highest confidence ratings for public opinions
  97. Minimal-effects thesis
    the idea that mass media tend to reinforce what people already believe and rarely change people�s minds
  98. Multi-racial Ethnic category
    fastest going race in the United States
  99. Most important (least logical) reason to vote
    you can swing the election! One vote!
  100. Most represented groups by PACs
    business groups
  101. Motor-voter law
    eased voter registration requirements
  102. NAACP
    formed during Progressive Era
  103. National Conventions are becoming increasingly
    ignored by the media. (party managers trying to get involved turns away coverage.. now it can be viewed more on the Internet)
  104. National Gazette
    Newspaper for jeffersonians
  105. National Organization for Women
    traditionally given the mast vajority of their campaign donations and support to Democratic Candidates
  106. News media responds to
    public demands.
  107. Newspapers as a medium for news
    Decline in the number of cities with more than one newspaper, and the spread of chain ownership
  108. Nineteenth Amendment
    Women given the right to vote (1920)
  109. Overvote
    when someone votes for more than one candidate
  110. PAC
    Political Action Committee
  111. Patrons
    rich individuals with deep commitments to the group goal who make a difference with large contributions
  112. Percent of Americans that belong to four or more groups
    39%. Americans on average contribute to four.
  113. Percent of voting-age population that votes in midterm cong. Elections
  114. Percent of young Americans that follow politics rarely (in 2000)
    nearly 70%
  115. Pluralism
    school of thought that politics is the clash of groups that represent all important interests in society and that they check and balance each other
  116. Pluralism Criticism
    no representation of interest group universe, interest of the nation doesn�t equal the sum of all its interest groups, groups distort politics, and reinforce extremism
  117. Political efficacy
    a belief that one person can make a difference in politics
  118. Political elites
    those people who are deeply involved in politics, that bind together their positions on different policy issues
  119. Political entrepreneurs
    people willing to assume the costs of forms and maintaining an organization even when others may free-ride on them.
  120. Poll Taxes and Literacy Tests
    ended in mid 1960s
  121. Power of lobbyists
    drafting bills, testifying before cong. committees, meeting with elected officials, presenting their cases, providing information.
  122. Presidential approval question
    Developed by Gallup organization
  123. Priming
    occurs when the media alters the standards people use to evaluate political figures
  124. Private Goods
    things that you must purchase to enjoy, and your consumption of which means that others cannot consume them
  125. Public Goods
    things you can enjoy without contributing, by free-riding on the efforts of those who do (often provided at sub-optimal levels)
  126. Public Opinion (said by V.O. Key)
    �those opinions held by private persons which governments find it prudent to heed�... the aggregation of people's views about issues, situations, and public figures
  127. Public Socialization
    preaching ideals of citizenship and patriotism is an example of this
  128. Public views the media as being
  129. Reference Groups
    do not always have clear-guiding ideologies
  130. Radio as a medium of news
    not dominant, but popular. There has been a growth of talk radio (satellites allow for transmission of one program to hundreds of stations)
  131. registered voters
    those legally eligible to vote who have registered in accordance with the requirements prevailing in their state and locality
  132. Regulating radio vs. newspaper
    radio is a limited public resource, while newspaper is not.
  133. Reliable Survey Research
    asking simple questions is essential for this
  134. Sampling Error
    error that results from using a small group to estimate the characteristics of a larger population
  135. Satellite Radio
    the only thing free from FCC content regulations
  136. Selection Bias
    when a sample systematically includes or excludes people
  137. Selection principle
    guideline according to which stories with certain characteristics are chosen over stories without those characteristics
  138. Selective benefits
    benefits that are specifically for members of the interest group (AARP has craploads of incentives and benefits belonging to members)
  139. Single-Issue Group
    An interest group narrowly focused to influence policy on a single issue
  140. Social connectedness
    the degree to which individuals are integrated into society � extended families, neighborhoods, religious organizations, and other social units
  141. Social issues
    issues that reflect personal values more than economic interests
  142. Social Movement Interest Group
    most likely group to take direct action.
  143. Socialization
    process by which one learns political beliefs and values
  144. Socialization most influential during
    childhood and adolescence
  145. Solidarity Incentives
    camaraderie and social aspects of group membership
  146. Sound bite
    a piece of film or video that shows a candidate speaking in his or her own words
  147. Subgovernments (interest groups)
    alliance of congressional committee, the executive agency, and interest groups that combine to dominate policy-making in some specified policy area (they�re not �more powerful than ever in creating policy today�)
  148. Suffrage
    the right to vote
  149. Talk radio
    the most recent significant political development in radio communications
  150. Tax-paying
    the main requirement to vote until the 1850's
  151. Television as a medium for news
    99% of households have at least one, network system used to dominate, but has declined dramatically due to UHF and cable. TV has been the public�s main source of info since the 60s
  152. The free rider problem affects _____ groups to a greater degree
    larger. (Feeding the poor in your neighborhood versus reducing world hunger..)
  153. Three important characteristics of U.S. radio
    licensing system, importance of advertising, emergence of national networks
  154. Timeline of newspaper ideologies
    Early on they were partisan, then grew to be less after the Civil War, realizing that it was not important to alienate readers.
  155. Twenty-fourth Amendment
    Poll tax outlawed (1964)
  156. Twenty-sixth Amendment
    18-21 year-olds given the right to vote (1971)
  157. Twenty-third Amendment
    DC Residents granted right to vote (1961)
  158. Undervote
    ballots that indicate no choice for an office, whether because the voter abstained or because the voter's intention could not be determined
  159. Universal white male suffrage
    didn't happen until eve of the Civil War
  160. Until the Civil War, almost all newspapers were ______
    partisan. (many received subsidies or patronage from the party�s supporters)
  161. VAP
    Voting Age Population � all people in the US over the age of 18, including those who may not be legally eligible to vote.
  162. VEP
    Voting Eligible Population
  163. Voter Mobilization
    the efforts of parties, groups, and activits to encouarage their supporters to turn out for elections
  164. Voting according to idologies
    being pro-this, pro-that, anti-that � and voting on those ideas
  165. Voting Rights Act
    (1965) reestablished federal oversight of southern elections
  166. Watergate
    the controversy that stemmed from a break-in at the Democratic Headquarters in Washington D.C., and led to the resignation of President Nixon
  167. Ways interest groups can influence government
    Lobbying, electioneering, PACs, persuading the public, direct action, litigation
  168. Who determines voter eligibility
    the states
  169. Why do people not vote, despite the suffrage?
    There is a decline in personal benefits, a decline in voter mobilization, and a decline in social connectedness (how involved people are in society). Costs are higher, not everyone wants jury duty, election day is weird. The move to high-tech campaigning may also indirectly cause this as well. Most of the reasons are psychological.
  170. Why is it that there is an issue getting people to participate in a cause everyone believes in?
    Because everyone benefits if the results are positive, whether they help out or not, so they have the idea that other people will do the work for them and they'll get the benefit.
  171. Women's Suffrage
    slow process � Wyoming in 1890 gave them the right first, then 11 other states before 1920, when the 19th amendment gave all women the right to vote. Other countries did the same later
  172. Yellow Journalism
    many newspapers in the late 1800s and early 1900s eagerly exploited scandals and any story involving sex or violence.
Card Set
Political Science Test 2