The Age of Religious Wars

  1. The Age of Religious Wars (topic overview)
    • late 16th-early 17th centuries
    • bloody conflict b/w Protestants and Catholics across Europe
    • caused by both religious conflicts and bitter dynastic rivalries
    • Calvinists vs. Catholic rulers (France, Netherlands, England, Scotland- mid to late 16th century); fought for right to govern territories/practice religion openly
    • Lutherans vs. Calvinists vs. Catholics (N. and Central Europe- 30 Years' War)
    • English Puritans revolted against Stuart monarchy and Anglican Church by mid-17th century
  2. Renewed Religious Struggle
    • religious conflict usually in central Europe (early to mid 16th century); Lutherans and Zwinglians struggled to secure rights and freedoms
    • Calvinists fought for recognition in France, the Netherlands, England, and Scotland (mid to late 16th century)
    • Lutheranism became legal religion in H.R.E after Peace of Augsburg (1555); didn't recognize non-Lutheran Protestants (Anabaptists and Calvinists were considered heretics)
    • struggle for religious freedom increased in most countries outside H.R.E
    • after Council of Trent (1563) Catholics began Counter-Reformation led by Jesuits
    • Geneva became refuge for persecuted Protestants and int. school for Protestant resistance
    • Calvinism adopted organization that increased regional and local religious authority; board of presbyters (elders) represented individual groups of Calvinists; directly shaped policy
    • Counter-Reformation adopted centralized church; hierarchy (pope-->priest); pope and his bishops had the most power
    • Calvinism appealed to people who preferred political decentralization; Roman Catholic Church devoted to one head and one law
  3. Baroque Style
    • successor to mannerism
    • presented life in grandiose, 3-d display of raw energy
    • Peter Paul Rubens, Gianlorenzo Bernini (Catholics)
    • demonstrates opposition b/w Calvinism and Catholicism
    • Catholic Counter-Reformation preferred baroque style
    • Protestant artists were restrained
    • Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch Mennonite)
  4. Renewed Religious Struggle (cont.)
    • intellectuals perceived wisdom of religious pluralism and toleration more quickly than politicians
    • skepticism, relativism, and individualism became
Card Set
The Age of Religious Wars
age of religious wars (ch. 12)