1. What are the benifits and limitations of Cross Sectional Designs
    • Benifit: Cheap, Quick, Easy
    • Limiation: Exagerates results
  2. What are the benifits and limitations of Longitudinal Research
    • Benifit?
    • Limitations: Takes a loooooonnnggg time! and minimises the data
  3. What are the benifits and limitations of Sequential Desings
    Benifit: More realistic results, very efficiant and accurate in a smaller amount of time
  4. What is the best way to measure development ?
    (out of cross sectional - longitudinal - sequential)
  5. What is wrong with coss sectional, longitudional and sequential research?
    They are ALL correlational designs. We do not know the cause of why things are happening.
  6. Erik Eriksons said people continue to change their whole lives and believes there are 8 different stages to live. What are the 8 stages and what ages do these happen at?
    • 1. Basic Trust vs Mistrust
    • birth to 1

    • 2. Autonimy vs Shame & Doubt
    • 1 to 3

    • 3. Inittique vs Guilt
    • 3 to 6

    • 4. Industry vs Inferiority
    • 6 to 11

    • 5. Identity vs Diffusion
    • 12 to 20ish

    • 6. Intimacy vs Isolation
    • Young adulthood

    • 7. Generativity vs Stagnation
    • Middleage

    • 8. Ego Integrity vs Despair
    • elderly years/ not having much time left
  7. What effects cause people to change?
    And Why?
    • Maturational Effects (biological)
    • Cohort and Age Normative Effects
    • Idiosync

    Why? Becuase they all add up over a life time
  8. What are Maturational Effects
    • Biological Effects
    • things like puberty and physical development
  9. What are Cohort and Age Normative Effects
    • Cohort: A Special Subtype of age normative effects
    • eg: a group of people, all around the same age experiencing a historical even together e.g Christchurch Earthquakes, 9/11
    • Age Normative Effects: e.g beginning school at 5, finding a partner at 20 etc
  10. What Are Idiosyncratic Effects?
    • Unique and Individual things that change a persona to make you differnt
    • e.g having many siblings.
    • losing someone close to you
  11. What is the age period of Neonates?
    Newboarn to 6 weeks
  12. What are Neonates sences like?
    And how do they recognise their parents
    • - are legally blind
    • - very good hearing

    recognise their parents by sound and feel
  13. What can Neonates do and how do they spend their time?
    Sleep 16-18 hours a day

    - have very limited behavious made up of eniterly reflexes such as , sucking, graspings

    • - they can habituate
    • -can be classically conditioned
    • -can be operantly conditioned
  14. What is Miolen, and why is it necessary in development of newborns
    New borns have very little miolen becuase of this they have lots of reflexs. If one thing is stimulated, something else will happen. The more miolen there is the less this will happen. It gets rid of the unwanted reflexs
  15. What are the aspects of tempraments
    • -Activity Levels
    • -Intensity
    • - Rythmicity
    • -Attention Span
    • -Approach/Withdrawl
  16. What are Jean Piagets 4 Stages of Development at what ages
    1. Sensorimotor - birth to 18 months

    2. preopetational - 2 to 7 years

    3. Concret operations - 7 - 11 years

    4.. Formal Operations - beginning at 12 years
  17. Who was Jean Piaget and what were his thoughts
    a stage theorist.

    what he said was wrong around the margins but as a whole correct

    he tends to focus on more of what children can NOT do rather than what they can do
  18. What is Assimilation and Accommodation?
    Describe the differences
    • Assimilation is when u try to change new things to fit into what u know
    • eg.... like if u see a horse for the first time, u think ok well it has 4 legs like a dog, it runs like a dog, it has short hair like a dog, then maybe its just a big dog

    Accommodation is when u change ur thoughts to accept new things in the environment

    eg..... like when u see the horse for the first time, u think well this is a horse so from now on every time i see something thats large and with hoofs and a long tail i am going to think of it as a horse
  19. In Jean Piagets Sensory Motor Stage what happens?
    + What age is this?
    • age 0-2
    • Child begins to interact with envorinment

    If something is not infron tof them it no longer exists

    Develop control over thier own body

    Can recognise their self from others
  20. In Jean Piagets Preoperational Stage what happens?
    + What age is this ?
    age 2 - 6/7

    • -Child begins to represent the world symbolically
    • -develop language
    • - Make believe and play

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