Problems Chapter Three

  1. Drug
    Any substance other than food that alters the structure or functioning of a living organism when it enters the bloodstream.
  2. Drug Abuse
    The violation of social standards of acceptable drug use, resulting in adverse physiological, psychological, and/or social consequences.
  3. Chemical Dependency
    A condition in which drug use is compulsive and users are unable to stop because of physical and/or psychological dependency.
  4. Anomie
    A state of normlessness in which norms and values are weak or unclear.
  5. Binge Drinking
    As defined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days prior to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
  6. Gateway Drug
    A drug (e.g., marijuana) that is believed to lead to the use of other drugs (e.g., cocaine).
  7. Crack
    A crystallized illegal drug product produced by boiling a mixture of baking soda, water, and cocaine.
  8. Club Drugs
    A general term for illicit, often synthetic, drugs commonly used at nightclubs or all-night dances called "raves."
  9. Date-Rape Drugs
    Drugs that are used to render victims incapable of resisting sexual assaults.
  10. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    A syndrome characterized by serious physical and mental handicaps as a result of maternal drinking during pregnancy.
  11. Therapeutic Communities
    Organizations in which approximately 35-500 individuals reside for up to 15 months to abstain form drugs, develop marketable skills, and receive counseling.
  12. Harm Reduction
    A recent public health position that advocates reducing the harmful consequences of drug use for the user as well as for society as a whole.
  13. Demand Reduction
    One of two strategies in the U.S. war on drugs, demand reduction focuses on reducing the demand for drugs through treatment, prevention, and research.
  14. Supply Reduction
    One of the two strategies in the U.S. war on drugs, supply reduction concentrates on reducing the supply of drugs available on the streets through international efforts, interdiction, and domestic law enforcement.
  15. Deregulation
    The reduction of government control over, for example, certain drugs.
  16. Legalization
    Making prohibited behaviors legal; for example, legalizing drug use or prostitution.
  17. Decriminalization
    The removal of criminal penalties for a behavior, as in the decriminalization of drug use.
  18. MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving)
    A social action group committed to reducing drunk driving.
  19. What is a drug, and what is meant by drug abuse?
    Sociologically, the term drug refers to any chemical substance that (1) has a direct effect on the user�s physical, psychological, and/or intellectual functioning; (2) has the potential to be abused; and (3) had adverse consequences for the individual and/or society. Drug abuse occurs when acceptable social standards of drug use are violated, resulting in adverse physiological, psychological, and/or social consequences.
  20. How do the three sociological theories of society explain drug use?
    Structural functionalists argue that drug abuse is a response to the weakening of norms in society, leading to a condition know as anomie or normlessness. From a conflict perspective drug use occurs as a response to the inequality perpetuated by a capitalist system as societal members respond to alienation from their work, family, and friends. Symbolic interactionism concentrates on the social meanings associated with drug use. If the initial drug use experience is defined as pleasurable, it is likely to recur, and over time the individual may earn the label of "drug user."
  21. What are the most frequently used legal and illegal drugs?
    Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused legal drug in America. The use of tobacco products is also very high, with 25 percent of Americans reporting that they currently smoke cigarettes. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug, with 162 million marijuana users, representing 4.0 percent of the world�s population.
  22. What are the consequences of drug use?
    The consequences of drug use are fourfold. First is the cost to the family, often manifesting itself in higher rates of divorce, spouse abuse, child abuse, and child neglect. Second is the relationship between drugs and crime. Those arrested have disproportionately higher rates of drug use. Although drug users commit more crimes, sociologists disagree as to whether drugs actually "cause" crime or whether, instead, criminal activity leads to drug involvement. Third are the economic costs (e.g., loss of productivity), which are in the billions. Last are the health costs of abusing drugs, including shortened life expectancy; higher morbidity (e.g., cirrhosis of the liver and lung cancer); exposure to HIV infection, hepatitis, and other diseases through shared needles; a weakened immune system; birth defects such as fetal alcohol syndrome; drug addiction in children; and higher death rates.
  23. What treatment alternatives are available for drug users?
    Although there are many ways to treat drug abuse, two methods stand out. The inpatient-outpatient model entails medical supervision of detoxification and may or may not include hospitalization. Twelve-step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) are particularly popular, as are therapeutic communities. Therapeutic communities are residential facilities where drug users learn to redefine themselves and their behavior as a resp9onse to the expectations of others and self-definition.
  24. What can be done about the drug problem?
    First, there are government regulations limiting the use (e.g., the law establishing the 21-year-old drinking age) and distribution (e.g., prohibitions about importing drugs) of legal and illegal drugs. The government also imposes sanctions on those who violate drug regulations and provides treatment facilities for other offenders. Second, there are collective action groups - for example, Mothers Against Drunk Driving. Finally, there are local and statewide initiatives geared toward holding companies responsible for the consequences for their product - for example, class action suits against tobacco producers.
  25. "Cannabis cafes" are commonplace throughout England.
  26. The most used illicit drug in the world is...
  27. What theory would argue that the continued legality of alcohol is a consequence of corporate greed?
    Conflict Theory
  28. Cigarettes smoking is...
    The most common use of tobacco products
  29. In the United States drinking is highest among young, nonwhite males.
  30. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks per occasion on _ or more days in a 1-month period.
  31. The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, can act as a sedative or a hallucinogen.
  32. In 2007, most federal drug control dollars were allocated to...
    Domestic Law Enforcement
  33. Decriminalization refers to the removal of penalties for certain drugs.
  34. The two-pronged drug control strategy of the U.S. government entails supply reduction and harm reduction.
Card Set
Problems Chapter Three
Problems Chapter Three