1. Does exposure diminish anxiety?
    Yes, unless exposure is too great.
  2. What is the only way to overcome fears?
    Help people learn to be exposed to the fears.
  3. What happens if a person avoids there fears?
    The fear strengthens.
  4. Can you successfully treat most anxiety disorders?
  5. What are the biological contributions and causes of anxiety?

    What is the fight/flight system?
    The limbic system.

    FF system: panic circuit, alarm & escapre response.
  6. What is the percentage of the HIGH rates of comorbidity?

    Does Panic have similar rates as major depression?

    Yes, similar rates as major depression.

    Linked to increases for all anxiety disorders.
  7. Are anxiety disorders more prominent in men or women?

    Are social phobias more prominent in men/women?
    Anxiety & mood disorders more prominent in women.

    Social phobias, equal in both genders.
  8. What are some characteristics of people w/ generalized anxiety disorders? (GAD)
    Excessive apprehension & worry.


    Strong, persistent anxiety (6+ months).

    Somatic symptoms: muscle tension, fatigue, mental agitation.

    Problems sleeping.

    Worry about minor, everyday concerns (job, family, chores, etc.)
  9. In children, what are some generalized anxiety disorder symptoms? (GAD)
    Worry = academic, social, athletic performance.

    *Need only one physical symptom.
  10. GAD in the elderly. What are some symptoms in the elderly?

    Which group of persons are more likely to get MD's?
    Worry about failing health, loss.

    Up to 75% prevalence.

    Use of minor tranqualizers - 17-50%

    *Elderly are more likely to get MD's.
  11. What is agoraphobia?
    Fear of avoidance of situations/events
  12. Panic disorder w/ and w/o agoraphobia. What are some clinical descriptions?
    Avoidance can be persistent.

    Use and abuse of drugs/alcohol.

    Interoceptive avoidance.
  13. Panic disorder treatment. What are some systems? (multiple)
    Serotonergic, noradrenergic, benzodiazepine GABA.

    SSRIs (e.g. Prozac & Paxil)

    High replapse rates when d/c'd
  14. Panic Disorder: What are some Panic control treatments?
    Exposure to interoceptive cues.

    Cognitive therapy.


    *High degree of efficacy.
  15. What are some symptoms of "blood-injection-injury" phobia? What is the onset?
    Decreased heart rate and blood pressure.


    Inherited vasovagal response

    Onset: ~9
  16. What is "situational phobia"? Give some examples and onset.
    Fear of specific situations.

    (e.g. transportation, small places

    No uncued panic attacks

    Onset: early to mid 20s.
  17. What are some natural environment phobias? What is the onset?
    Heights, storms, water (may combine).

    *Associated w/ real dangers.

    Onset: ~7
  18. What are some animal phobias?

    Are they associated w/ real dangers?
    Dogs, snakes, mice.

    *May be associated w/ real dangers
  19. What is an example of "seperation anxiety"? Is it normal?
    Yes, its normal.

    *As babies begin to understand that they can be separated from their primary caregiver, they do not understand that their caregiver will return, nor do they have a concept of time.

    This, in turn, causes a normal & healthy anxious reaction.

    (ages 6-18 months).

    *Normal stage of development.
  20. What is separation anxiety disorder?
    Distress in children when separation from a major attachment figure occurs or is expected to occr.
  21. PTSD. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. What are the clinical descriptions?
    *Have to be exposed to s/th to be classified as PTSD.

    Clincial Desc:

    • Extreme fear, abjectness
    • Continnued re-experiencing (nightmares, memories, flashbacks)
    • Avoidance of stimuli associated w/ trauma
    • Numbness of responsiveness
    • Feeling of detachment from others

    *1 month +
  22. What are some causes of PTSD?
    Intensity of trauma (an event)

    Biological vulnerability (e.g. twin studies)
  23. PTSD: What are some treatments?
    Cognitive-behavioral treatment (highly effective)


    Increase positive social skills & social support

    Medications: SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
  24. PTSD: What is a specific treatment developed by Francine Shapiro?
    Eye Movement Desensitization Treatment (EMDT)

    The goal of EMDR therapy is to process these distressing memories, reducing their lingering influence & allowing clients to develop more adaptive coping mechanisms.
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