------- -------- is the choice of large-scale commercial production (crop plants)
Large scale bioreactors are used to produce millions of ------- & --------.
embryoids + automated plantings
LIQUID PROPAGATION STARTS WITH?
Start with protoplasts (plant cells with walls digested away)
-Protoplasts can be transformed with foreign genes (microinjection or electroporation)
-Hybrid plants have new characteristics
Natural mutants form when ----- embryos grow into mature plants.
--------- -------- is one way to obtain desirable traits in plants (disease resistance)
Natural mutants form when somatic embryos grow into mature plants...HOW IS THIS FACT UTILIZED?
Plant breeders use this to find new types with improved genetics.
-Mutations are random and occurs when chromosomes break and rejoin
Gene banks are used to store -------
T OR F?
Rates of loss of ancient germplasm has increased with new farm practices, clearing old fields and displacement by new crops
WHERE ARE GERMPLASM FOUND?
Germplasm are found in developing countries
T OR F?
Plants produce many secondary metabolites (not involved in growth or development directly)
Plants produce many secondary metabolites, likely ------- plant produced chemicals that fit this description
-----% of the worlds population rely on herbal medicines and have been for thousands of years
------ %of pharmaceuticals in US from plants
ITS CHEAPER TO GROW PLANTS IN TROPICS TO SAVE $....WHAT'S AN ISSUE WITH THIS?
Problems exist with secondary metabolites form plants involving sequestered compounds and gene regulation, and not all cultivars will produce the desired chemicals
T OT F?
Plants may also produce compounds not normally found in plants
For all cells of a plant to get an inserted gene, the plant must be regenerated --- ----- ------ ------ ------.
in vitro from transformed cells
For all cells of a plant to get an inserted gene, the plant must be regenerated in vitro from transformed cells...NAME SOME METHODS
Viral infection, bacterial infection, microinjection, electroporation and microprojectile
WHEN GENETICALLY MODIFING A PLANT AND GROWING CULTURE...WHAT ARE Ab USED FOR?
Selective antibiotic markers are usually used to eliminate non transforms cells
Grown in liquid or on solid medium
T OR F?
Expression of genes are the key; they need to be expressed at the right time and in the right plant tissue
Expression of genes: Use of ---- ---- ----- --------- have shown promise
promoter regions and codon engineering
Applications of Plant Genetic Engineering
Plants as bioreactors
Harvest/extract valuable compound
DEFINE Crop Improvement
Includes aspects of many of the below mentioned applications + loss of farmland.
50 crop varieties have been genetically modified for better nutrition/quality
DEFINE Herbicide resistance.
Weeds compete with crops for nutrients, water, light, CO2, and have advantages. Effective reproduction, reseed, fast growing and tolerant, self fertilizing, large root system
DEFINE Insect resistance:
Bt toxin and plant protease inhibitors are effective pesticides that starve insects. BUG EATS BACTERIA IN PLANT..DEATH.
Alpha amylase inhibitor prevents weevil damage..STARCH...GLUCOSE..MAKE ATP. NO ENZYME..NO ATP.
DEFINE Virus resistance.
Plants are immunized with viral genes Protein coat genes confer resistance (?) Genes for fungi and bacteria.
GIVE PLANT A SHOT INNULCATE.
DEFINE Plants as bioreactors.
Soon, plants will have inserted genes to produce proteins of therapeutic and industrial value (accumulates inside)
DEFINE Harvest/extract valuable compound.
Soy has been used to produce monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of colon cancer
Lower cost by using plants over bacteria WHAT ARE THE RESULTS?
-Simply plant seeds, no fermenters
-High quality proteins (soy 45-50% protein)
-Foreign proteins are made active (must be renatured when made in bacteria)
-Seed stored proteins stable (to 5 yrs)
-Lack pathogens, toxins, viruses
-Post translational processes are present
TI PLASMID AND T-DNA WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE?
T-DNA TRANSFER PIC
T OR F?
Lower cost by using plants over bacteria...Foreign proteins are made active ( must be renatured when made in bacteria)
T OR F?
IT CHEAPER TO GROW PLANTS AND TEST THEN DO GROW BACTERIA TO OBTAIN CERTAIN PRODUCTS?
Genetically engineered foods...NAME SOME POINTS
-Flavr Savr tomato was first (1994)
-Engineered to soften slowly, remains on plant until ripe (all year round) ships well
-Calgene approved by FDA and USDA
-Use of antisence RNA to block the polygalacturonase gene product, thus blocking the breakdown of pectin (spoilage)
-Tomatoes were delicate, did not grow well in Fla., and cost more
-After being sold to Monsanto it left the market
Use of antisence RNA to block the polygalacturonase gene product, thus blocking the breakdown of pectin (spoilage).. WHAT GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD?
T OR F? FLAVR SAVR Tomatoes were delicate, did not grow well in Fla., and cost more
NAME TWO PUBLIC FEARS ABOUT GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS.
1. Gene deletions may introduce side effects (fungal growth > aflatoxin)
2. Dispersal may alter the ecosystem or wildlife that use plants as feed.
More than --% of processed foods in the United States contain ingredients from genetically engineered organisms.
------ different genetically engineered plants have been approved in the United States, with many variations of each plant, some approved and some not.
Scientists in 2003 removed an ------- from soybean called ---- that can cause a severe allergic response
Soybean has been modified to be resistant to broad-spectrum -------.
WHY ARE SOYBEANS USED IN GENETIC MODIFICATIONS?
NAME 3 POINTS ABOUT GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN?
-Bt insect resistance is the most common use of engineered corn, but herbicide resistance is also a desired trait.
-Products include corn oil, corn syrup, corn flour, baking powder, and alcohol.
-By 2002 about 32% oif field corn in the United States was engineered.
More than 60% of the crop in 2002 was genetically engineered; it and is found in many processed foods, and is also a common cooking oil.
More than 71% of the ------ crop in 2002 was engineered. Engineered -------oil is found in pastries, snack foods, fried foods, and peanut butter.
NAME 5 GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS
Other engineered plants include papaya, rice, tomato, sugar beet, and red heart chickory.
A transcription factor for a group of COR genes called “CBF” was patented as --------- in 1997 by a group at Michigan State University. The genes also provide drought tolerance and tolerance to high-salt soils.
NAME SOME CROPS THAT CONTAIN CBF GENES
All major crop species, including corn, soybean, and rice contain CBF genes.
Genetically engineering plants with CBF genes survive temperatures as much as ------C lower than non-engineered plants.
------- -------was genetically engineered to produce high levels of beta-carotene, which is a precursor to vitamin A. Vitamin A is needed for proper eyesight.
Golden Rice was developed by ----- ----- & ------- ----- and several agencies are attempting to distribute the rice worldwide.
Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer,
Biotechnology company ---------, who owns the rights to Golden Rice, is exploring commercial opportunities in the United States and Japan. Monsanto will provide licenses to Golden Rice technology royalty-free.
Plants have been engineered to produce human antibodies against------- & -------- has begun clinical trials with herpes antibodies produced in plants.
HIV and Epicyte Pharmaceuticals
------ corn had been approved for animal consumption, but in 2000 ended up in Taco Bell taco shells. The shells were immediately recalled.
Aventis CropScience believed that precautions regarding the corn were in place, but some farmers did not know the corn was not for humans....WHAT PRODUCT?
StarLink contained two new genes. NAME THEM
1. Resistance to butterfly and moth caterpillars by a modified Bt toxin gene called Cry9c.
2.Resistance to herbicides such as Basta and Liberty.
------- was approved for animals because the Cry9c protein could be an allergen in humans because it was more stable to heat and in the stomach.
T OR F?
Plants may possibly be used as bioreactors to mass-produce chemicals that can accumulate within the cells until they are harvested.
T OR F ?
Soybeans have been used to produce monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic value for the treatment of colon cancer. Clot-busting drugs can also be produced in rice, corn, and tobacco plants.
The reasons that using plants may be more cost-effective than bacteria.
-Scale-up involves just planting seeds. -Proteins are produced in high quantity.
-Foreign proteins will be biologically active.
-Foreign proteins stored in seeds are very stable.
-Contaminating pathogens are not likely to be present.
NAME A FOOD USED AS EDIBLE VACCINE
Potatoes have been studied using a portion of the E. coli enterotoxin in mice and humans.
Other candidates for edible vaccines include banana and tomato, and alfalfa, corn, and wheat are possible candidates for use in livestock.
T OR F?
Edible vaccines may lead to the eradication of diseases such as hepatitis B and polio.
A type of PHA (polyhydroxylalkanoate) polymer called “poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate”), or PHB, is produced in ------- OR --------- -------.
Arabidopsis, or mustard plant.
PHB can be made in canola seeds by the transfer of three genes from the bacterium --------- --------, which codes for enzymes in the PHB synthesis pathway.
Monsanto produces a polymer called PHBV through ---------- ------ , which is sold under the name Biopol.
T OR F?
Plant seeds may be a potential source for plastics which that could be produced and easily extracted.
PHB can be made in ----- ------- by the transfer of three genes from the bacterium Alicaligenes eutrophus, which codes for enzymes in the PHB synthesis pathway
------, -------- & -------- will go a long way toward changing plant biotechnology and health care.
Microarrays, DNA chips, and genome sequencing
Another use for transgenic plants is that of -------- -----.
Factories for the production of rare or valuable products
Plant biotechnology relies on the ability to regenerate whole plants from cells or tissues:Referred to as totipotency
WHAT CELLS ARE INVOLED IN TOTIPOTENCY?
-Retained the ability to divide and differentiate into mature plants
plant organ propagation (ovary/anther)
tissue culture to regenerate a whole plant was established
Seed propagated plants can now be cultured--- -----yielding thousands of cloned plants
Seed propagated plants can now be cultured in vitro yielding thousands of cloned plants...NAME THE EXAMPLE.
OIL PALM PLANT
Disease resistance can be selected in culture.No virus to ----- ------ regions, so plant propagated from this are virus free
shows faster results than traditional plant breeding (see figure 6.1)
Cloning plants by ----------uses actively dividing cells
WHAT ARE EXPLANTS?
STEM, ROOT, LEAF PLANT PARTS INVOLED IN PREFORMING REGENERATION MEHODS.
Cells cultured with ------- & -------form a callus; loosely arranged mass of undifferentiated cells
auxins and cytokinin
Cells cultured with auxins and cytokinin form a callus; loosely arranged mass of undifferentiated cells
WHAT IS A loosely arranged mass of undifferentiated cells
T OR F?
Calli are either placed in liquid medium for growth, or on solid media for culturing
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A CALLUS ESTABLISHMENT OCCURS?
cell mass can be subdivided and re-cultured readily (value of this method)
T OR F?
When specific growth factors are added to callus, they form shoots and roots and form a plant
---------result from the cultured somatic cells (all cells but gametes)
Method of plant tissue that produces embryo-like structures: Embryoids result from the cultured somatic cells (all cells but gametes)
Sources of vegetative tissue...NAME 3
Sources of vegetative tissue include:
1. Mature plants and reproductive tissue other than the zygote, or embryonic tissue.
3. hypocotyls from young plants
Made into embryoids via hormonal treatment that blocks shoot and root development...NAME 2
Cotyledons and hypocotyls from young plants
T OR F?
Callus development produces numerous embryoids that all can develop into adults