APUSH Chapter 9-12 Test

  1. Egalitarianism
    • More of an evolution than a revolution
    • Separation of church and state
    • Believing in equality“All men are created equal” became the watchword and initiated equality in the colonies
    • Philadelphia Quakers in 1775 founded the world’s first antislavery society because egalitarian sentiments challenged the institution of slavery
    • Continental Congress in 1774 called for complete abolition of slave trade
    • Most states responded positively/Even some idealistic masters in Virginia
    • This revolution was incomplete
    • No states south of Pennsylvania abolished slavery
    • Laws discriminated against freed blacks and slaves (no purchasing property, holding certain jobs, and educating their children. Interracial marriage was also against the law)The fledgling idealism of the Founding Fathers was sacrificed to political expediency: a fight over slavery would have fractured the unity, which they need during the warNJ new constitution in 1776 (for some time) allowed women to voteWomen, disguised as men, served in the armyCivic virtue: the notion that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public goodSelfless devotion of mother was the model of proper republican behaviorRepublican women bore crucial responsibility for the survival of the nation by being educated and cultivating their virtues in their husbands, daughters, and sons
  2. political vs economic democracy
    political-people vote for representatives in House and Senate

    economic- a shift in decision-making power from a small minority of corporate shareholders to a larger majority of public stakeholders.
  3. Articles of Confederation
    (1781)- First American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states to regulate commerce or collect taxes. The Articles were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789. (179)
  4. Pos/Neg Articles of Confederation
    Positive- land ordinance (Northwest 1787-allowed all of land in Old Northwest to be sold for purpose of paying off war debts

    • Negative-British refused to repeal Navigation Acts
    • Spain closed Mississippi River to American commerce and took advantage of and that was given to the US by Great Britain
    • A loose confederation of states
    • 1 vote in Congress for each state
    • Laws administered loosely by committees of Congress
    • No congressional power over commerce
    • No congressional power to levy taxes
    • Limited federal courts
    • Unanimity of states for amendment
    • No authority to act directly upon individuals and no power to coerce states
  5. Shays' Rebellion
    (1786)-Armed uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures. Though quickly put down, the insurrection inspired fears of "mob rule" among leading Revolutionaries
  6. Constitutional Convention
    (1787)- take a risky move by scrapping the Articles of Confederation and creating a new Constitution

    James Madison is considered "The Father"
  7. The Constitution
    Great Compromise-popular term for the measure which reconciled the New Jersey and Virginia plans at the constitutional convention, giving states proportional representation in the House and equal representation in the Senate

    Electoral College

    Three-fifths compromise- each slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of apportioning taxes and representation; granted disproportionate political power to Southern slave states
  8. The Federalist Papers
    (1788)-collections of essays written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton and published during the ratification debate in New York to lay out the Federalists' arguments in favor of the New Constitution. Since their publication, these influential essays have served as an important sources for constitutional interpretation
  9. population growth after the Revolution
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APUSH Chapter 9-12 Test
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