1. learning
    relatively permanent change in behavior
  2. ABC's of behavior
    • we learn by association
    • Antecedents->behavior->consequences
  3. Associative Learning in classical conditioning
    learning to associate one stimulus with another

    • Two related events: Result after repetition
    • Lighting we see lighting
    • thunder we anticipate thunder
  4. associative learning in operant conditioning
    learn to associate a response with a consequence

    • Response: Pushing a vending machine button
    • Consequence: receiving a candy bar (behavior strengthen)
  5. Ivan Pavlov
    elucidated classical conditioning (Russian physiologist )

    Provided a basis for later behaviorist like John Watson
  6. Classical (respondent) Conditioning
    • Involuntary responses.
    • –Conditioning involves pairing 2 stimuli.
    • –Control by antecedents. Behavior is elicited.
  7. Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS)
    Produces a response without previous learning.
  8. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    unlearned response
  9. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    • Previously neutral stimulus
    • that elicits a response after being paired with the Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
  10. Conditioned Response (CR)
    learned response to CS after pairing of UCS-CS. Similar to UCR.
  11. Pavlov’s Classic Experiment
    Before conditioning,
    food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does not.
  12. Pavlov’s Classic Experiment
    During conditioning
    the neutral stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR)
  13. Acquisition
    The initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between NS & UCS takes place
  14. Effect of Temporal Relationship Between CS and UCS on Acquisition

    Delayed Conditioning
    CS precedes the USC (tone presented and remains on while food is presented)

    Most effective
  15. Effect of Temporal Relationship Between CS and UCS on Acquisition

    Trace Conditioning
    CS presented first but ends before the UCs occurs

    ring bell, then food, will work but takes longer
  16. Effect of Temporal Relationship Between CS and UCS on Acquisition

    Simultaneous Conditioning
    CS and UCS presented at same instant

    same time / just focused on food
  17. Effect of Temporal Relationship Between CS and UCS on Acquisition

    Backward Conditioning
    • CS follows the UCs (tone after food)
    • food, ring bell
  18. In most cases, for conditioning to occur, NS needs to come before UCS by about .5 sec
  19. Extinction
    When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually ceases
  20. spontaneous Recovery
    After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers when CS presented, but if the CS persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again

    • Go back to conditional (what they first learned)
    • adaptive, safety, protective mechanism
  21. Stimulus Generalization
    is the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS.
  22. Stimulus Discrimination
    is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
  23. Reconditioning Savings
    • Reconditioning a previously extinguished stimulus to become a CS once again is usually faster the
    • second time around.
  24. Higher-order Conditioning
    • A well learned CS can become a UCS to another CS
    • Can have second-order conditioning , third-order conditioning, etc.
    • Example
    • Bell (CS1) ->Salivation (CR)
    • If repeat: Clap (NS) + Bell (CS1) ->Salivation (CR) Eventually Clap (CS2) -> Saluivation (CR)
  25. Can emotional responses be conditioned
    Watson & Raynor (1920) used classical conditioning procedures to condition little Albert’s fear response.
  26. Little Albert
    • US- loud noise
    • UR-cry/fear
    • CS- white rat
    • CR- cry fear
    • generalized - everything white and fluffy made him cry
  27. Applications of Classical Conditioning
    Former crack cocaine users should avoid cues (people, places) associated with previous drug use.

    Hearing the sound of a toilet flush-> hot water-> flinch
  28. Operant Conditioning
    Based on Thorndike’s Law of effect
    Behaviors followed by positive outcomes strengthen, while those followed by negative outcomes weaken.

    • Conditioning of operants (deliberate actions) involves response contingent consequences.
    • Behavior is emitted then controlled by consequences.
  29. Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
  30. 1.Classical conditioning forms associations between stimuli (CS and US). Operant conditioning forms an association between behaviors and their resulting consequences.
    2.Classical conditioning involves respondents Operant conditioning involves operants
  31. Skinner's Experiments
    Using Thorndike's law of effect as a starting point, Skinner developed the Operant chamber, or the Skinner box, to study operant conditioning.
  32. The Skinner Box
    The operant conditioning chamber/skinner box comes with a bar that an animal manipulates to obtain food or water and has a grid on the ground through which electrical current can pass.
  33. Skinner's work
    Skinner concluded that 2 types of Consequences control behavior, each has two forms.
  34. Reinforcement
    An event that increases the frequency of behaviors that preceded it.

    Strengthening a behavior you want strengthened
  35. Pos Reinforcement
    desirable event follows behavior
  36. Negative Reinforcement
    an unpleasant even ends when behavior occurs

    subtracts something away that increases desirable behavior
  37. Punishment
    • An event that decreases the
    • frequency of behaviors that preceded it.
  38. positive punishment
    something aversive occurs
  39. negative punishment
    something desirable is taken away
  40. Ways to increase behavior
    Positive reinforcement
    add a desirable stimulus

    getting a hug, receiving a pay check
  41. Ways to increase behavior
    Negative reinforcement
    remove an aversive stimulus

    fastening a seatbelt to turn of beeping
  42. Ways to decrease behavior
    Positive punishment
    Administer an aversive stimulus

    spanking parking ticket
  43. Ways to decrease behavior
    Negative Punishment
    withdraw a desirable stimulus

    • time out from privileges (such as time with friends)
    • revoked driver's license
  44. Negative side effects of punishment
    • 1.Escape/avoidance behaviors negatively reinforced lying, cheating, blaming, anyway to avoid
    • 2.Use of punishment negatively reinforced short term and quick results, and must become more severe as time goes on
    • 3.User established as a conditioned punisher the kid will want to avoid you
    • 4.Conveys no information to the organism. never learned why it was bad
    • 5.Unwanted behaviors reappear in its absence.when you leave they will do the behavior again
    • 6.Ethical issues: justifies aggression on weaker other & models use of punishment if you have power over someone doesn't mean you should use it
  45. Primary Reinforcer
    An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. No learning needed. Inherently valuable.

    warmth, approval
  46. Conditioned/secondary reinforcer
    A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer.

    what matters is the other persons view (aversive)
  47. immediate reinforcer
    a reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior (right at the beginning of a behavior )

    most effective
  48. Delayed reinforcer
    A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior

    immediate signal
  49. Continuous Reinforcement
    Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs.
  50. Partial/intermittent Reinforcement
    Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though this results in slower acquisition in the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on.
  51. Ratio schedules
    depend on rate of responding
  52. interval schedules
    depend on time
  53. Fixed-ratioschedule
    Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
  54. Variable-ratio schedule
    Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.

    most resistant to extinction
  55. Fixed-interval schedule
    Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
  56. Variable-interval schedule
    Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

    produces a steady response
  57. Extinction of Operant Conditioning
    Gradual decrease in behaviors that are no longer reinforced
  58. Shaping
    • Procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations
    • • Used if behavior never occurs and instructions/modeling not applicable /effective
    • • Reinforce behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior & stop reinforcing previous approximations
    • • Sometimesusedaccidentallytodevelopproblem behaviors
  59. Token Economy
    • Involves systematic use of conditioned reinforcers (tokens) to increase desirable behaviors
    • – Present tokens immediately after desirable behavior & pair token delivery with descriptive praise
    • – Tokens exchanged for back-up reinforcers. – Begin with a continuous schedule of reinforcement
    • & a generous exchange rate
    • – Fade tokens gradually & let natural reinforcers maintain target behavior.
  60. Cognitive Aspects of Learning
    • Behavioral learning involves cognitive aspects & inner processes that traditional behaviorists ignored. Skinner
    • criticized for dehumanizing people by neglecting their free will.
  61. Latent Learning
    Even with out reinforcement,rats learned to run a maze. Performance, but not learning, improved with reinforcement.

    Such cognitive maps are based on latent learning, which becomes apparent only when an incentive is given (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).
  62. Observational Learning
    Bandura’s bobo doll study (1961) on modeling & vicarious conditioning
  63. Learning by observation
    Learning by observation begins early in life. This 14-month-old child imitates the adult on TV in pulling a toy apart.

    Gentile et al., (2004) shows that children exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express increased aggression.
  64. Mirror Neurons
    Neuroscientists discovered mirror neurons in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning.
  65. Application of Operant Conditioning
    Reinforcers affect productivity. Many companies now allow employees to share profits and participate in company ownership.
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