anthro test 2

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  1. population
    evolve as the frequency of certain genes changes:individual organism dont evolve
  2. species
    interbreeding group of animals or plants that are reproductively isolated through anatomy,ecology,behavior,or geographic distribution from all other such groups
  3. microevolution
    study of evolutionary phenomena that occur within a species
  4. reproductive isolating mechanisms
    any factor(behavioral,ecological,or anatomical)that prevent male and female of 2 different pecies from hybridizing
  5. macroevolution
    the study of evolutionary phenomena that occur within a species
  6. mutation
    an alteration in the DNA that may or may not alter the functioni of a cell. Occurs in a gamere and may be paases from one genration to the next
  7. natural selection
    type of evolution that takes traits from past plants or animals and is inherited to new generations to survuve in current envirment
  8. gene flow
    • moevemnt of genes between populations
    • example:when humans or other animals migrate fromone place to another
  9. genetic drift
    random changes in a gene frequency in a population
  10. founder effect
    a example of genetic drift states that new populations become isolated from the original population(parent)and carry only the genetic variation of the founders
  11. bottleneck effect
    example of genetic drift.occurs when a large genticlly diverse population undergoes a rapid reduction in size and then increases again
  12. sexual selection
    nonrandom mating when females choose a particular mate and make decision on natural variation in male traits
  13. directional slection
    natural selction that drives evolutionary change by selecting for greater or ledder freuwncy of a given trait in a populaton
  14. stabalizing selection
    selection that maintains a certain phnotype by slecting against deviation from it
  15. adaptive radiation
    the diversification of one founding species into multiple species and niches
  16. darwanian gradualsim
    evoltution changes at an avergae space(never stops)
  17. radiocarbon dating
    a technique used to estimate age of organic itms from PLeistocene through present.
  18. radiocarbon dating C14 & C12
    • is radioactive useful for organic remains from the past 30,000-40,000 years
    • exists in atmosphere
  19. point mutaion
    change in base sequence of a gene that results from the change of a single base to a different base
  20. fossils
    the preserved remnants of once living things often burried in ground
  21. stratigraphy
    study of the order of rock layers and the sequence of events they reflect
  22. punctuated equilibrium
    species phenotype remain static,changin very little over log periods of time
  23. Big Bang Theory
    origin of earth burt of energy that exploded and rapidl expands(most common theory)
  24. Cambrian Explosion
    happened 543 million years ago its the very beging of animals and multicellular life(in water)
  25. relative dating
    technique used for estimating the age of organic items from the latest Pleistocene through the present(including fossils and artifacts found)
  26. biostratigraphy
    relative dating technique using comparisons from differnt stratigraphic sequences to eliminate which layers are older and which are younger
  27. absolute dating
    process of determining an approximate computed age in archaeology and geology
  28. taphonomy
    study of what happenes to the remains if an animal from the time of death to the time of the discovery
  29. paleonthology
    study of extinct organisms based on their fossilized remains
  30. radiomtic dating
    chronometric techniques that use radioactive decay of isotopes to estimate age
  31. provenience
    the origin or original source(as a fossil)
  32. half-life
    time it takes fro half of the original amount of an unstable isotope of an elemnt to decay into more stable forms
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anthro test 2
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