Physio Quiz

  1. Reflex:
    rapid, predictable, involuntary motor responses to simuli
  2. Five essential components of a reflex arc:
    • receptor
    • sensory neuron
    • integration center
    • motor neuron
    • effector
  3. What is the importance of reflex testing in a routine physical examination?
    to test for spinal cord or brain damage
  4. Core-mediated reflexes:
    • patellar
    • achilles
  5. Somatic reflexes in which higher brain centers participate:
    • plantar reflex
    • corneal reflex
  6. Can the stretch reflex be elicited in a plithed animal?
    yes, as long as they have been plithed recently
  7. Reflex arc of the patellar reflex:
    • sensory receptors in the quadriceps muscle
    • patellar tendon is tapped
    • causes a stretch in the quads
    • stimulates the length receptors
    • fires an action potential in the sensory neuron which goes to the spinal cord (afferent)
    • innervates the motor neuron (efferent) to the same muscle (receptor)
    • Assuming the stimulus was strong enough motor neuron also fires an action potential
    • causes a contraction in the quads
    • resulting in a slight kick of the lower leg
    • reflex arc is an example of negative feedback
  8. Factor that increases the excitatory level of the spinal cord:
    effect of simultaneous muscle activity in another body area
  9. Factor that decreases the excitatory level of the mucles:
  10. Ciliospinal reflex:
  11. salivary reflex:
  12. pupillary light reflex:
    • parasympathetic
    • prevents eye damage
  13. corneal reflex
    protect the eye from damage and light
  14. crossed-extensor reflex:
    its used to be a withdrawl reflex to maintain balance and coordination
  15. pupillary consensual response:
    • contralateral
    • protection for not having too much light in that eye
  16. somatic reflexes:
    include those that involve stimulation of skeletal muscles
  17. autonomic reflexes:
    include those that activate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, involuntary parasympathetic actions.
  18. Micturition:
    • organ: bladder
    • receptor stimulated: bladder; stretch receptors
    • action: detrusor contracts and urethra relaxes allowing bladder to empty
  19. interoceptor:
    • respond to stimuli arousing within the body
    • doing sit ups; proprioceptors
    • the "too full" sensation; visceral/ stretch
  20. exteroceptor:
    • reacts to stimulus in external environment; found close to body surface
    • backing into a sun-heated iron railing; pain
    • someone steps on your foot; pain
    • reading a book; photoreceptor
    • seasickness; eqilibrium-inner ear
  21. Explain how sensory receptors act as transducers:
    • they convert one form of signal to another form
    • pain recepor -> chemical signal
  22. Stimulus:
    something that rouses or incites to activity
  23. What was demonstrated by the two-point discrimination test?
    measures the smallest distance at which two points of contact can be felt
  24. Punctate Distribution:
    clustering of cutaneous sensory receptors; instead of being uniformly distributed
  25. which cutaneous receptors are the most numerous?
    simple pain receptors
  26. Cold receptors:
    appear to be more numerous
  27. Referred Pain:
    pain that is felt in a part of the body at a distant from the area of pathology

    • gall bladder -> right inferior thorax
    • kidneys -> lumbar
    • appendix -> right lumbar; abdominal surface
  28. Probable explanation of referred pain?
    nerves carry the signal to other body parts so your brain interprets the pain from being from distal parts also
  29. What region of the cerebrum interprets the kind and intensity of stimuli that cause cutaneous sensations?
    somatosensory association area
  30. Adaptation of sensory receptors:
    when a stimulus is applied for prolonged period, the rate of receptor response slows and our conscious awareness of stimulus declines or is lost until some stimulus change occurs
  31. Why is it advantageous to have pain receptors that are sensitive to all vigorous stimuli?
    • they act as protection of us
    • make us aware of our surroundings
    • send messages to brain
  32. Why is nonadaptability of pain receptors important?
    if we adapted we would eventually pay no mind to pain
  33. No cutaneous organs = very dangerous. Why?
    • self harming incidences would increase
    • you would be less efficient at maintaining body temperature
  34. Type 1 Diabetes:
    • pancreas doesnt work at all
    • need to inject insulin
    • symptoms progress more rapidly and can be worse
    • usually diagnosed in children and young adults
    • only 5% of the people with diabetes have type 1
  35. Type 2 Diabetes:
    • pancreas works but not as well as it should
    • can be controlled by diet/ exercise
    • sometimes need oral medication
    • some need insulin injects
    • symptoms include: excessive thirst and urination, weight loss, hunger, tiredness, blurred vision, decreased resistance to infection, dehydration
    • most common
  36. Insulin:
    hormone used by the body to turn sugar, carbohydrates, and starch into energy
  37. Resistin:
    • found in fat cells
    • overactive in those suffering from obesity
    • people suffering from obesity are at higher risk for being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes
Card Set
Physio Quiz
Ex. 22 + 23 / case study