Anatomy Lab

  1. Central Nervous System
    Brain and spinal cord enclosed in bony coverings
  2. Peripheral Nervous System
    Nerves and ganglion
  3. Nerve
    Bundle of nerve fibers in connective tissue
  4. Ganglion
    Swelling of cell bodies in a nerve
  5. Cell Body
    • Perikaryon= soma
    • Single, central nucleus with large nucleolus
  6. Dendrites
    For receiving signals
  7. Axon
    Nerve fiber arising from axon hillock for rapid conduction
  8. Schwann Cells
    • Wrap around axons
    • Contain myelin
    • Forms myelin sheath- increased speed
    • - White matter is myelinated
    • - Gray matter is unmyelinated
  9. Presynaptic Neurons
    Have synaptic vesicles with neurotransmitter
  10. Postsynaptic Neurons
    Have receptors
  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Clear liquid fills ventricles and canals and bathes its external surface (in subarachnoid space)
    • Goes into ventricles from choroid plexus
  12. Functions of Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Buoyancy- floats brain so it's neutrally buoyant
    • Protection- cushions from hitting inside of skull
    • Chemical stability- rinses away wastes
  13. Rostral
    Toward the forehead
  14. Caudal
    Toward the cord
  15. Major Parts of the Brain
    • Cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem
    • Weighs 3- 3.5
  16. Cerebrum
    83% of brain volume
  17. Cerebellum
    • Contains 50% of the neurons
    • Connected to brainstem by cerebellar peduncles
    • White matter (arbor vitae) visible in sagittal section
    • Sits atop the 4th ventricle
  18. Brainstem
    Diencephalon, cerebral peduncles, pons, medulla oblongata
  19. Forebrain
    • Cerebrum
    • Corpus callosum
    • Diencephalon
  20. Diencephalon
    Pineal gland, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, mammillary bodies
  21. Midbrain
    • Cerebral peduncles
    • Superior and inferior colliculi
  22. Hindbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla oblongata
    • Cerebellum
  23. Longitudinal Fissure
    • Separates 2 cerebral hemispheres
    • -Gyri are the folds and sulci the grooves
    • -Surface layer of gray matter is called cortex; deeper masses of gray matter are called nuclei
    • -Bundles of axons are called tracts; cerebral medulla
  24. Cerebral Cortex
    3mm layer of gray matter with extensive folds to increase surface area- divided into lobes
  25. Frontal Cerebrum Lobe
    Contains voluntary motor functions and areas for planning, mood, smell and social judgement
  26. Parietal Cerebrum Lobe
    Contains areas for sensory reception and integration of sensory information
  27. Occipital Cerebrum Lobe
    Visual center of brain
  28. Temporal Cerebrum Lobe
    Contains areas for hearing, smell, learning, memory, emotional behavior
  29. Pons
    • Bulge in the brainstem, rostral to the medulla
    • Nuclei concerned with sleep, hearing, balance, taste, eye movements, facial expression, facial sensation, respiration, swallowing, nladder control, and posture
Card Set
Anatomy Lab