Lab exam

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  1. what is the function of the respiratory system?
    • -Gas exchange
    • (exchange of O2 for CO2
    • -Regulate of blood PH
    • (by altering blood CO2 levels)
    • -Speech
    • (movement of air past vocal folds)
    • -Olfaction
    • (movement of air inside nasal cavity)
    • -Immunity
    • (some lymph nodes, surfactants in lungs)
  2. what is the location of the nasal cavity?
    from the nares(nostrils) to choanea (opening of nasal cavity into pharynx)
  3. what type of cells make up the nasal cavity?
    • outside
    • -lined with stratified squamous epithelium
    • inside
    • -pseudostratified columnar
    • (makes mucous membrane)
  4. what are the functions of the nasal cavity?
    • -serves as passageway for air when eating
    • -cleans air as it passes into trachea
    • -vestible lined with hairs that catch some dust
    • -chochea makes turbulance so that air must interact with mucous membrane
  5. what is the pharynx?
    common opening of respiratory and digestive system
  6. what is the three layers of the pharynx?
    • -Nasopharynx
    • contains pharyngeal tonsil, (adenoid)
    • -Oropharynx
    • contains two of the tonsils (palatine, lingual)
    • -Laryngopharynx
  7. what three main functions do the larynx perform? name structures
    • -Thyroid
    • cricoid cartilages maintain open passageway for air
    • -Epiglottis
    • vestibular folds (false vocal cords)
    • prevent entry of food
    • -Vocal folds (vocal cords)
    • are used to produce sound
  8. what type of cartilage is the epiglottis composed of?
    elastic cartilage
  9. what assist you in holding your breath?
    vestibular folds
  10. what are the two cell types of alveoli?
    • -Type I pneumocytes
    • (thin squamous epithelium that is 90% of surface, gas exchange occurs through these cells)
    • Type II pneumocytes
  11. what makes up the respiratory membrane?
    alveolar walls and surrounding pulmonary capillaries
  12. what is the respiratory membrane consist of?
    • -alveolar fluid (with surfactant)
    • -aveolar epithelium (simple squamous)
    • -fused basement membranes of alveolus and capillary
    • -capillary endothelium (simple squamous)
  13. what cavity is the lungs located?
    lie within the thoracic cavity, within a division called the pleural cavity
  14. what is the two membranes of the lungs?
    • -parietal pleural
    • covers inner thoracic wall, diaphragm, and mediastinum
    • -visceral pleura
    • covers surface of lung
    • continuous with parietal pleura at hilum
  15. what is tidal volume?
    the volume of air inspired (inhaled) or expired (exhaled) durning a normal breath.
  16. what is inspiratory reserve volume (IVR)?
    the maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal after a normal inspiratory breath
  17. what is expiratory reserve volume (EVR)?
    the maximum amount of air that can be expired after a normal expiratory breath
  18. what is residual volume?
    the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximal exhalation
  19. what is the total lung capacity?
    • the total amount of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration.
  20. what is the vital capacity?
    • the maximal amount that can be forcefully exhaled following a maximal inspiration.
  21. what is inspiratory capacity?
    • the maximal amount that can be inspired from the end of a normal expiration
    • IC=TV+IVR
  22. what is functional residual capacity?
    the amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration
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