History of Kingdoms.txt

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  1. Aristotle (330BC)
    2 kingdom: Plantae & animalia
  2. Ernst Haeckel (1866)
    3 kingdom: Protista added to Plant and animal
  3. Herbert Copeland (1956)
    • 4 kingdom: added Monera (bacteria=prok) due to seeing nucleus thru electron microscope
    • Protista (fungi included), plantae (metaphytes) and animalia (metazoans & SPONGES included) remained
  4. Robert Whittacker (1969)
    • 5 Kingdoms: Added FUNGI as separate group due to CHITON component of cell wall, also b/c it's a heterotroph
    • MOnera (prok), Protista (protozoa & SC algae), plantae (metaphyes & MC algae), animalia (SPonges & metazoans)
  5. Carl Woese (1977)
    • 6 Kingdoms: Added ARCHAEOBACTERIA (sn-G-1-p LIPIDS..w 2 subkingdoms) and Eubacteria (sn-G-3-p LIPIDS w/2 subkingdoms) in place of MONERA
    • 1. Archaeobacteria (do not cause disease in euk or humans)
    • 1A Crenarchaeota: NO HISTONES, NO CELL WALLS
    • 1B Eukyarchaeota: HISTONES, No MUREIN cell walls
    • 2. Eubacteria (cause disease in euk or humans)
    • 2A MonoDermata: Gram +, NO Histone Proteins, Murein cell wall, SINGLE cell Membrane
    • 2B Didermata: Gram -, NO Histone proteins, Murein cell wall, DOUBLE Cell membrane
    • Groups 3-6 all sn-G-3-p LIPIS WIth histones present, nucleus present, no murein cell walls
    • 3. Protista
    • 4. PLantae: CELLULOSE CELL WALL, CHloroplasts
    • 5. Fungi: CHITIN CELL WALL, NO chloroplasts
    • 6. Animalia: No cell wall, COLLAGEN
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History of Kingdoms.txt
history of kingdoms
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