Darwin thoughts and definition of terms.txt

  1. Theological Argument (&darwin's challenge)
    • formulated by Rev. William Paley
    • Paley's View: Intelligent design is seen by creation of organisms, and these organisms must have been made by intelligent designer (God)
    • Darwin's Rebuttal: Natural SELECTION can account for these well-adapted organisms, for mass extinction, and for unfavorable adaptation. We have a lot of flaws as humans, such as easy ability to choke if trachea becomes clogged
  2. Moral Argument (&darwin's challenge)
    • St. Augustine's argument: Coexistance of evil w/omnipotent benevolent God.
    • Augustine's Free-will defense claims that God allows EVIL to exist so humans have a free, moral choice b/w good & evil
    • Darwin's Rebuttal: Long periods of evolution needed for adaptations with non-humans, including disease & suffering events. This is not justified by Free-will as these non-humans are presumed to NOT have a conscience.
  3. Darwin's Ideas and their progression from hypothesis (1859) to the 21st cent
    • 1. Abiogenesis: hypothesis --> hypothesis (still speculative)
    • 2. Evolution: hypothesis --> strongly supported for MACROevolution (ie from paper w/desert sunflower) and FACT w/microevolution
    • 3. Common Descent: hypothesis --> moderately supported HYPOTHESIS for animals, plants and euk
    • 4. Gradualism: hypothesis --> strongly supported HYPOTHESIS (ie w/horses from forest --> grass lands)
    • 5. Population Change: Hypothesis (strongly supported) --> FACT for microevolution
    • 6. Natural Selection: Theory --> ACCEPTED (paradigm) theory
  4. Fact and example
    • Fact: single observation in space & time
    • Example: Thomas Hunt Morgan observed 1st white eyed fly in Drosophilia species
  5. Hypothesis and example
    • Hypothesis: data based inference- makes testable predictions in time & space
    • example: Thomas Morgan predicted inheritance of white eyed males are more abundant than in white eyed females (showing x linked) ..leading to a theory
  6. Theory and example
    • Theory: Abstract model to explain cause of temporal observation
    • Example: Thomas Morgan's theory of sex-linked inheritance w/white eyed frequency in Drosophilia females vs males
  7. Truth and exmple
    • Truth: Eternal, abstract model which may or may not have real-world application
    • Example of real world app: Pythagorrean theory of right triangles
    • Example of non-real world app: Euclid's 5th postulate that parallel lines never intersect
  8. Anagenesis
    • (1 ancestor --> 1 descendent)
    • Non-branching: Entire parental species evolves into a SINGLE new species
    • ie horses: Grazing Merychippus (grass) evolved from Parahippus
    • Darwin thought this was more common than Cladogenesis
  9. Cladogenesis
    • (1 ancestor --> 2 descendents)
    • Subpopulation of parental species evolves, while ancestor species still exists
    • ie bears: Polar bear evolved from brown bear in Russian peninsula
  10. Adaptive Radiation
    • (1 ancestor --> 3 or more descendents)
    • Several subpopulations of parental species evolve into new species
    • ie finches: Galapagos finches feeeding on seeds (ground finches), some feeding on insects (tree finches) ..total of 16 diff evolved from Caribbean type
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Darwin thoughts and definition of terms.txt