Test effectiveness

  1. Eductational programs -Associate Degree
    Clinical Laboratory Technician (CLT) / Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) programs
  2. Education programs Baccalaureate Degree
    Clinical Laboratory Science (CLS) / Medical Technology (MT) programs
  3. There two general types of CLS programs:
    university-based and hospital-based
  4. university–based programs,
    the institution that provides the clinical education also grants the baccalaureate degree.
  5. hospital-based programs
    the hospital provides the clinical education and partners with an academic institution to provide the baccalaureate degree.
  6. What are the three different ways the CLS/MT programs are structured?
    2+2 programs, integrated programs and plus 1 program.
  7. 2+2 Program what year to the CLS courses and rotations start
    Junior then senior year clinicals
  8. Integrated programs CLS begins
    at the start it is 4 years incorporated
  9. Plus 1 program CLS rotations begin
    3 years of pre-requiste and the senior year 1 year of rotations
  10. 4+1 is that like the 3 +1
    Yes only that the student already has a BA and will be awarded a certificate
  11. Accreditation is defined
    a process of external peer review, an agency grants public recognition to a program of study or institution that meets established qualifications and educational standards
  12. Does NAACLS accredits and approves programs
  13. What is the difference between an approval or an accreditation
    Approvals do not have site visits by NAACLS
  14. benefits of accreditation
    Instructors and administrators to participate in self- evaluation, program puts out competent individuals and a mechanism to meet goals and objectives
  15. NAACLS is an autonomous organization sponsored by the two founding organizations
  16. Accreditation Process several steps
    Application, self-study, paper review , site visit, NASCLS review, decision
  17. Self-study
    6-10 to prepare document and it shows program complies with standards
  18. Paper review
    NAACLS reviews self-study report
  19. CLS certification means
    individual’s qualifications are recognized by a non-governmental organization or agency.
  20. purpose of certification
    is to assure the public and employers that individuals are competent to practice in a particular profession.
  21. recertification is offered by
    NCA as a means of CE
  22. What is the instructional sequence
    Goals, objectives, learning activites and evaluation
  23. Writing goals
    Goals should describe what the learner will be able to do
  24. Writing objectives
    Once goals have been identified, objectives developed to help the learner take specific steps to attainment of those goals.
  25. Objectives and goals are similar but differ?
    an objective is more specific than a goal.
  26. objective is a statement that describes
    what the learner will be able to do after successfully completing a particular educational experience.
  27. example Goal:
    The new employee will understand all the laboratory safety policies.
  28. example objective
    After reading the safety manual, the employee will state the requirements for disposal of biohazardous materials.
  29. example objective
    After reading the safety manual, the employee will respond to a chemical spill using the proper procedures.
  30. Why Use Objectives?
    The major reason for using objectives is to facilitate clear communication between the learner and the instructor.
  31. Objectives can benefit learners by
    Guidelines for studying, learners to evaluate own progress, facilitating communication with the instructor
  32. Are objectives required?
    Yes NAACLS requires them for each course
  33. The major criticisms of objectives are
    written at lower cognitive levels, limit instructors flexibility, to time consuming to write.
  34. Writing Objectives: General Guidelines
    terminal behavior, condition and standards
  35. what is terminal behavior
    involves deciding what the learner must be able to do after completing the instructional activity in order to demonstrate mastery of the objective.
  36. examples of terminal behavior
    Identify the antibody specificity, Calculate the mean and standard deviation, List the components of Complement
  37. what are conditions
    The instructor should indicate what the learner will be provided or what will be denied.
  38. examples of conditions
    Given a calculator, the student will..., Using a procedure manual, the student will, Given the frequencies of blood group antigens, the student will
  39. What are standards
    This indicates how well the learner must perform to be considered acceptable, if not stated understood 100%
  40. examples of standards
    within 30 minutes, with 90 percent accuracy, within + 2 standard deviations
  41. Example of a complete objective:
    Given a Neubauer counting chamber, the student will perform manual white blood cell counts on four cerebrospinal fluid samples with 90 percent accuracy.
  42. A key to writing good objectives is the choice of the appropriate
  43. The verb is to ?
    to describe the performance, or the terminal behavior that the learner must exhibit
  44. In writing objectives, verbs should be chosen to clearly convey?
    instructor expectations so the instructor and learner can identify behavior that will be accepted as evidence the learner has successfully mastered the objective.
  45. examples of action verbs
    Calculate Repeat, Diagram Select, Identify State, List Underline
  46. a way to fix an error in writing an objective
    The emphasis should be on the what the learner will do rather than on what the instructor will do.
  47. a way to fix an error in writing an objective
    The focus of objectives should be on the learning outcome rather than on the learning process.
    Cognitive, psychomotor, and affective
  49. Cognitive Domain includes
    includes intellectual learning outcomes such as the recall, comprehension , and the processes of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
  50. The simplified taxonomic levels in the cognitive domain are:
    Recall, application and problem solving
  51. Cognitive domain recall
    Remembering learned information.
  52. example of recall
    At the conclusion of the clinical rotation in the histocompatibility laboratory, the student will list the steps in the procedure used to perform crossmatches for HLA compatibility prior to transplantation.
  53. Cognitive domain application
    Understanding information and applying it to other material or new situations.
  54. example of application
    Given the results of an HLA antibody screening, the student will calculate the PRA (panel reactive antibody).
  55. Cognitive domain problem solving
    Analyzing, reorganizing, and synthesizing information. Making decisions and judgments based on information.
  56. example of problem solving
    Given the results of HLA-A, -B, DQ and -DR antigen typings for a patient and family members, the student will determine the haplotypes of all family members and the best donor for a bone marrow transplant.
  57. Affective Domain 3 simplified levels
    Awareness, valuing, commitment
  58. Psychomotor domain 3 simplified levels
    Readiness, proficiency and adaptation
  59. The lecture method represents
    the most popular learning activity
  60. Lecture method advantages:
    most efficient in disseminating large quantities of info to any size group, instructor can summarize info from various sources, instructor can highlight topics in the textbook
  61. lecture method limitations
    learner is passive, 80% of what is learned forgotten in 2 months
  62. types of learning activities
  63. Lecture, Case studies, Simulations and role playing, Cooperative learning, Problem-based learning, Computer-based instruction, Student laboratory
  64. Lecture method organization
    Introduction, Body, Conclusion
  65. lecture method delivery should be
    Enthusiastic, keep a pace, minimize gestures, and maintain eye contact
  66. Case study uses
    higher cognitive domains and promotes problem solving.
  67. simulations and role playing uses
    affective and higher cognitive domains
  68. Types of Tests
    Placement, formative and summative
  69. placement
    Assess pre-requisite skills and knowledge
  70. formative
    Cover a limited amount of information
  71. summative
    Assess mastery of instructional material
  72. Testing Platforms
    Written, oral, computerized, practical exams
  73. Norm-referenced
    Achievement is based on performance of others
  74. Criterion-referenced
    Assesses mastery by achieving predetermined minimal competencies
  75. Pitfalls of Tests
    Assesses lower level cognitive skills, Does not match objectives , Grading is subjective
  76. Assessing Higher Cognitive Skills
    Want the learner to apply, analyze, evaluate, provide data ask for analysis
  77. Types of test items
    Objective and subjective
  78. Objective tests
    Multiple choice, true and false, and matching
  79. Subjective test
    Short answer and essay
  80. Multiple choice advantages
    Easy to make and greater sampling
  81. Multiple choice disadvantages
    Difficlt to create and tend to focus on recall
  82. What is the stem?
    is a direct question or incomplete statement
  83. The stem should be qualified using?
    "of the following” if a comparison is required
  84. Multiple choice guidelines
    The responses should be of similar length, complexity, and format, correct answers tend to be longer
  85. The words "always," "never," "all," or "none" should be
  86. The responses "all of the above" and "none of the above" should be used
    as little as possible, if at all.
  87. Multiple choice guidelines regarding amounts
    All responses should be expressed in the same units, When the responses are number values, they should be arranged increasing or decreasing order.
  88. True/False advantage
    Fast to take
  89. True/False disadvantage
    encourages guessing
  90. One way to minimize guessing on true and false?
    the students can be required to correct the false statements
  91. Matching Test advantage
    useful for testing a large amount of information
  92. Matching test disadvantage
    promotes memorization
  93. Subjective Items: Short Answer and essay advantages
    easy to make, useful for assessing higher cognitive skills
  94. short answer and essay disadvantages
    difficult to grade, limited sampling, subjective grading
  95. To evaluate essay and short answer items with the minimum amount of subjectivity
    Develop answers and criteria for each question prior to grading the test, Assign points for each criteria, Read all the students' answers to one question at a time, Grade the test without knowing the student's identity.
  96. Test and Item Analysis
    Used to determine the effectiveness of the items
  97. Types of test analysis
    distribution of grades, mean
  98. test items analyzed
    Pass rate, distribution of responses
  99. Discrimination Index
    Ranges from +1 to -1
  100. What is the Discrimination Index
    Indicates how well the item discriminated between good and poor performers
  101. What does a negative number mean in the discrimination index
    more poor performers got the item correct than good performers
  102. Test Reliability is affected by
    Quality of item, Number of items, objectivity of grading, Students’ physical and emotional state
  103. test reliability ranges
  104. Test Validity
    How well a test measures what it was designed to measure, content and criterion
  105. Evaluating Test Effectiveness
    test relevant and balanced, an appropriate length, grading objective, discriminate between high and low achieving learners, difficult enough to be challenging but not unfair, test reliable, test valid
Card Set
Test effectiveness
test effectiveness