Psychology Test #3 - Module 1

  1. Define: memory
    The information that has been stored and can be retrieved. Also the persistence of learning over time.
  2. Define: Sensory Input
    What is being processed, "sensed" - is briefly "stored in our sensory memory.
  3. Define: Sensory Memory
    Momentary neurological storage of the sensor input.
  4. Define: Automatic Processing
    Where information is encoded without awareness.
  5. Define: Effortful Processing
    Where attention and consciousness is required to encode information.
  6. Define: Short-Term Memory
    Where one can become aware of their encoded inforamtion, but without any additional processing this information will be forgotten in about 20-30 seconds.
  7. Define: Long-Term Memory
    A more permanent memory, out of our awareness.
  8. Define: Retrieval
    Getting information out of long-term memory.
  9. Define: Perspective Memory
    Remembering essential tasks to do.
  10. Define: Proactive Interference
    The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
  11. Define: Retroactive Interference
    The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
  12. Define: Positive Interference
    When the effect of prior learning can assist in the learning of new information.
  13. Define: Repression
    In psychoanalytic therapy, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
  14. Define: Misinformation Effect
    Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
  15. Define: Source Amnesia
    Attribting to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
  16. Define: Imagination Inflation
    Misinformation effect that applies to memories that never happened.
  17. List and define the two types of sensory memory.
    • Iconic Memory: visual information that less for less than one second.
    • Echoic Memory: Auditory information that can last for several seconds.
  18. List the five types of sensory information
    • Visual
    • Auditory
    • Touch
    • Smell
    • Taste
  19. List and define the three types of automatic processing.
    • Space: The context in which the information is encountered.
    • Time: When the information was encountered.
    • Frequency: How often information has been encountered.
  20. List and define the three types of effortful processing.
    • Rehearsal: Repetitive processing of information to keep it in our awareness or ot encode it for storage.
    • Elaboration: Associate meaning to an item to be remembered.
    • Chunking: Organize information into more memorable groupings.
  21. List and define the two types of long term memory.
    • Explicit Memory: requires conscious retrieval
    • Implicit Memory: memory for skills and habits
  22. List and define the two types of explicit memory.
    • Senatic Memory: General knowledge and facts
    • Episodic Memory: Specific, personal events
  23. List and define the two main retrieval processes.
    • Recall: remembering something without any retrieval cues.
    • Recognition: identifying something that has been learned.
  24. List the three stages of memory
    • Encoding
    • Storage
    • Retrieval
  25. List and define the three sins of forgetting.
    • Absent-Mindedness: Inattention to details leads to encoding failure.
    • Transience: Storage decay over time.
    • Blocking: Inaccesibility of stored information.
  26. List and define the three sins of distortion.
    • Misattribution: Confusing the source of information
    • Suggestibility: The lingering effects of misinformation.
    • Bias: Brlief-colored recollections.
  27. List and define the sin of intrusion.
    Persistence: Unwanted memories.
  28. List the seven points psychologists agree on regarding memoreis and abused children.
    • 1) Injustice happens.
    • 2) Incest and other sexual abuse happens.
    • 3) Forgetting happens.
    • 4) Recovered memoeries are commonplace.
    • 5) Memories of things happening before age three are unreliable.
    • 6) Memories "recovered" under hypnosis or the influence of drugs are especially unreliable.
    • 7) Memories, whether real or false, can be emotionally upsetting.
  29. List the seven strategies to improve memory.
    • 1) Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall.
    • 2) Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material.
    • 3) Make the material personally meaningful.
    • 4) To remember a list of unfamiliar items, use mnemonic devices.
    • 5) Refresh your memory by activating retrieval cues.
    • 6) Minimize interference.
    • 7) Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know.
  30. Encoding can happen automatically (____________) and with effort (_____________).
    Out of awareness; with awareness
  31. Memory is a _______ process.
  32. Memories are usually ______, but sometimes ______.
    reliable; fail
  33. How strong the __________ is will determine how strong the _________ of memory is.
    experience; consolidation
  34. It takes certain _____________ to retrieve a memory.
  35. ________________ came up with seven ways our memory fails us that he calls the ___________________.
    David Schacter; Seven Sins of Memory
  36. The ability to _______ information for the purposes of long-term memory degrades as an _________, versus when it is at its prime in a _______________.
    encode; older adult; younger person
  37. _________________ found through an experiment that the process of forgetting is in a curve called the ________. The process occurs ________ in the initial days, and then ___________. A possible
    explanation is a gradual ________ of the physical ______________.
    Hermann Ebbinghaus; Forgetting Curve; rapidly; levels off; failing; memory trace
  38. ____________ proposed that people ______ memories in order to protect their __________ and minimize ____________.
    Sigmund Freud; regress; self-concept; anxiety
  39. ____________ can have a great impact on someone’s ____________ of an incident.
    Word cues; depiction
  40. The _______ of a memory tends to be the frailest part of it.
  41. Children are most suspectible to ______________.
    false memory inplants
  42. People with vivid imaginations are more likely than others to experience a(n) ____________.
    false memory
  43. Speed-Reading complex material yields little long-term retention because it inhibits ________.
  44. Source amnesia is also called _____________.
    source misattribution
  45. Source amnesia, along with its misinformation effect, is at the heart of many _____________.
    false memories
  46. Explicit memory is processed in the area of the brain known as __________________.
  47. One area of the brain that implicit memory is processed is the ______________.
  48. Fill in the chart below for Encoding failure. Not all parts will be filled.

    Image Upload 2
    From left to right:

    External events; Blank; Sensory Memory; Attention; Working/Short-Term Memory; Encoding; Long Term Memory

    From top to bottom:

    Blank; Encoding failure leads to forgetting
  49. Fill in the chart below for retrieval failure. Not all parts will be filled.
    Image Upload 4
    From left to right:

    External Events; Blank; Sensory Memory; Attention; Working/Short-Term Memory; Encoding; Long-Term Memory

    From Right To Left:

    Retrevial; Blank

    From Top To Bottom:

    Blank; Retrieval Failure Leads to Forgetting
Card Set
Psychology Test #3 - Module 1
Memory Flashcards