Who is Careme and what is he known for?
Marie-Antoine Careme (1784-1833), was the greatest chef of the period following the French Revolution. Careme dedicated his career to refining and organizing culinary techniques. His books contained the first systematic accounts of cooking principles, recipes and menu making. He worked as a chef for wealthy patrons and kings. He is responsible for modernizing the Grande Cuisine and making food more simple and light. He added seasoning to hightlight other flavors, not cover them up (as in Middle Age cooking). The styles of cooking that he developed are still being used by modern cooks around the world.
Who is Escoffier and what is he known for?
- Georges-Auguste Escoffier (1847-1935), the greatest chef of his time, is still revered today as the father of 20th century cookery. His main contributions were: the simplification of classical cuisine and reorganizion of the kitchen. He rejected the old ideas of aimless quanity all served at once and introduced the idea of food being served in course that followed each other harmoniously and delighted the taste with their delicacy and simplicity.
- His books are still used today. Le Guide Culinaire arranges recipes in a simple system based on main ingredient and cooking method greatly simplifying the complicated system handed down by Careme. He believed that learning classical cooking begins with learning relatively few basic procedures and understanding basic ingredients.
- His reorganizion of the kitchen resulted in a streamlined workplace better suited to turning out the simplifed menues and dishes he instituted. This system is still in use, especially at large hotels and full service restaurants.
What are the origins of modern food service and who was Boulanger?
- Modern food service is said to have began in the middle of the 18th century. In 1765 a Parisian named Boulanger began advertising on his shop sign that he sold soups , which he called restaurants or restoratives, (meaning fortifying.) One of his dishes was sheeps feet in cream sauce, and the guild of stew makers challenged him in court, but Boulanger won by claiming that he didn't stew th feet in the sauce, he served them with the sauce. Before the French Revolution (1789), great chefs were in employed in the houses of nobility. With the revolution and the end of the monarchy, many chefs began opening restaurants in Paris to support themselves. Furthermore, the revolutionary government abolished the guilds. Restaurants and inns could now serve dinner reflecting the talent and creativity of their own chefs rather than being forced to rely on licensed caterers to supply their food. At the start of the French revolution there were about 50 restaurants in Paris, ten years later, there were about 500.
- Another important invention that changed the organization of kitchens in the 18th century were stoves, or potager, which provided a more practical and controllable heat source. The meat chef controlled the rotisserie, the pastry chef controlled the oven, or patissier, and the head chef (chef de cuisine/cuisinier) contolled the stove.
Describe the Classical Brigade with the responsibilities of each position:
2. Chef de Cuisine
3. Sous Chef
4. Station Chefs (or chefs de partie):'
saucier (the sauce chef)
poissonier (the fish cook)
entremetier (vegetable cook)
rotisseur (the roast cook)
grillardin (grill cook)
garde manger (cold foods)
patissier (pastry chef)
tournant (relief cook)
cooks and assistants
- Chef- responsible for food production, menu
- planning, costing, ordering, hiring and training.
- 2. Chef de Cuisine- In a large operation with many departments each kitchen
- will have a chef de cuisine, who reports to the head chef.
- 3. Sous Chef- directly in charge of production and works as the assistant to
- the executive or chef de cuisine. The sous chef takes command of the
- actual production and minute-by-minute supervision of the staff.
- 4. Station Chefs (or chefs de partie): In charge of particular areas of
- production. The following are the most important station chefs.
- saucier (the sauce chef)- prepares sauces, stews, hot hors d'oeuvres,
- and sautes foods to order. This is usually the highest position of all the
- poissonier (the fish cook)- prepares fish dishes. In some kitchens this
- station is handled by the saucier.
- entremetier (vegetable cook)- prepares vegetables, soups, starches and
- eggs. Large kitchens may divide these tasks among the vegetable cook, the fry
- cook and the soup cook.
- rotisseur (the roast cook)-prepares roasted and braised meats and their
- gravies and broils meats and other items to order.
- grillardin (broiler cook)- a large kitchen may have a grillardin in
- addition to a rotisseur, to handle the broiled items. The broiler cook may also
- prepare deep-fried meats and fish.
- garde manger (cold foods)- prepares cold foods including salads and
- dressings, pates, cold hors d’oeuvres and buffet items.
- patissier (pastry chef)- prepares pastries and desserts
- tournant (relief cook)- replaces other station heads
- aboyeur (expediter)- accepts order from waiters and passes them on to the
- cooks on the line. The expediter also calls for the orders to be finished and
- plated at the proper time and inspects each plate before passing it to the
- dining room staff. In many restaurants, the position is taken by the head chef
- or sous chef.
- cooks and assistants- in each station/department they help with duties
- assigned to them. For example, assistant
- vegetable cook (assistant entremetier), may wash, peel and trim
- vegetables. With experience, station assistants
- may be promoted to station cooks and then to station chefs.