Psych 365

  1. Memory code
    The format (physical, phonemic, semantic) of information encoded into memory
  2. Auditory Memory Span
    Number of items recalled from short term memory following an auditory presentation of the items
  3. Orienting tasks
    Instructions to focus on a particular aspect (physical, phonemic, semantic) of a stimulus

    pronunciation or its meaning
  4. levels of processing
    a theory that proposes that "deeper" (semantic) levels of processing enhance memory
  5. Maintenance rehearsal
    rehearsal that keeps information active in STM
  6. Incidental learning task
    A task that requires people to make judgments about stimuli without knowing that they will later be tested on their recall of the stimuli
  7. Primary Associates
    words that are strongly associated with each other, as typically measured by asking people to provide associations to words
  8. clustering
    percentage of occasions in which a word is followed by its primary associate during the free recall of words
  9. structural coding
    a memory code that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus
  10. phonemic coding
    a memory code that emphasizes the pronunciation of the stimulus
  11. semantic coding
    a memory code based on the meaning of the stimulus
  12. cued recall
    recall that occurs with hints or cues such providing the questions asked during the judgment phase of a task
  13. non-cued recall
    recall that occurs without hints or cues provided by the experimenter
  14. imprecise elaboration
    provision or generation of additional material unrelated to remembered material
  15. precise elaboration
    provision or generation of additional material closely related to remembered material
  16. self-generation
    generation of items by participants in an experiment, rather than the provision of these items by the experimenter
  17. distinctive item
    an item different in appearance or meaning from other items
  18. primary distinctiveness
    an item distinct from other items in the immediate context
  19. secondary distictiveness
    an item distinct from items stored in long term memory
  20. emotional distinctiveness
    items that produce an intense emotional reaction
  21. flashbulb memory
    a memory of an important event that caused an emotional reaction
  22. Encoding specificity principle
    a theory that states that the effectiveness of a retrieval cue depends on how well it relates to the initial encoding of an item
  23. mood-dependent memory
    memory that is improved when people are tested under conditions that re-create their mood when they learn the material
  24. transfer-appropriate processing
    encoding material in a manner related to how the material will be used later
  25. Processing Distinctiveness
    creation of a memory code that makes that memory distinct from other memories
  26. Problem-oriented acquistion
    Encoding material in a manner that is helpful for its later use in solving problems
  27. Fact-oriented acquisition
    Encoding material in a manner that emphasizes factual knowledge without emphasizing its application
  28. Orthographically Distinctiveness
    lowercase words that have an unusual shape
Card Set
Psych 365
vocab chap 6