Chapter 16- Nation State

  1. 30 years war&peace of Wesphalia
    1618-1648; 1648

    who: four-phase religious war, ending in acceptance of new religions

    • whats:
    • Catholic League defeated Protestant Union (Bohemia- civil war- 1618-1625)
    • Christian IV (Danish) witnessed Catholic victories---> Edict of Restitution (1625-1629)
    • Gustavus Adolpjus won battles (Lutheranism-Sweden- 1630-1635)
    • richelieu declared war on Spain (France: 1635-1648)
    • 1648- established peace= power with princes (calvinism/lutheranism=acceptable)

    • whys:
    • agriculture/land destroyed, people dead
    • new lengths on religion/establishments
    • peace of Augsburg re-established
  2. Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin
    (1585-1642; 1628); (1602-1661)

    who: minsters working on centralizing government of France

    • whats:
    • 1628- Richelieu= first minister of French crown (power in borders)
    • extended use of intendants--> increased power of centralized state
    • worked to expel Prot. (territories outside)
    • 1648-16530 Mazarin led to Frondre (indiv. opposed to policies of gov.)
    • caused riots, civil order gone completley

    • whys:
    • centralized gov raised
    • power to gov. over church
  3. Louis XIV
    r. 1643-1715

    who: king of France w/ absolute authority; "Appointed by God"

    • whats:
    • insisted on making decisions for council of states
    • chose council members- middle class nobles
    • lacked a first minister (inordinate power)
    • insisted on religious unity in france (Protestants- Huguenots)
    • 1685- revoked Edict of Nantes; destruction of H. schools/conversion

    • whys:
    • absolute power- noshare
    • religious controversy
  4. Palace of Versailles
    • 1682
    • who: center of political, social, & cultural life in France

    • whats:
    • required nobles to spend time each yr there (favoritism wanted)
    • established etiquette rituals (for everything.. nobles=honor)
    • allowed for growth of patronage (women &marriages/alliances/agreements)
    • patronized arts- "classic" like Ren.

    • whys:
    • further Louis XIV's absolutism
    • womens power increase
    • prestige of France spread
  5. Jean- Baptiste Colbert & Mercantilism
    1619-1683; 1665

    who: controller general worked towards increasing wealth/self= sufficiency

    • whats:
    • established Mercantilism- gov policies regulate economic activities (gold/silver)
    • decided france should export more than import.. $$
    • insisted France should make what they need- old industries increase/ new; foreign craftsmen
    • colonized Quebec..agriculture

    • whys:
    • france= independent?
    • allowed for Louis XIV not to worry about taxations for money
    • building of nation state
  6. Francois le Teiller, Marquis de Louvois
    ca. 1667

    who: secretary of state for war- army

    • whats:
    • created pro. army= state hires, not indiv. nobles
    • extended French borders- spanish Netherlands and Franche- comte (1667-1678)
    • seized Strasbourg and Lorraine (limit MET)
    • needed $ to finance.. raise taxes; crop failure--> death

    • whys:
    • army controlled by centralized gov
    • expanding of nation-state
  7. War of Spanish Succession & Peace of Utrecht
    (1701-1713) ;(1713-1715)

    who: war against France ended in set limits of expansion

    • whats:
    • triggered when Louis XIV broke treaty with Spain
    • formed Grand Alliance against Louis =(English, Dutch, Austrians/ Prussians)
    • 1713- ended war/ French expansion
    • forced France to surrender territories
    • whys:
    • set limits on power
    • end of french expansion- bankrupt/exhausted
    • conflict on nation states shown
  8. Frederick I of Prussia
    r. 1713-1740

    who: the "soldiers' king". turned Prussia into a military state

    • whats:
    • held fourth largest army (12th largest POP) by 1740
    • 1713- forced conscription= lifelong
    • 1733- ordered ALL men train/ serve as reservists
    • enlisted junkers to lead armies

    • whys:
    • built on serfdom
    • militaristic country- junkers tyranny/harsh on peasants
    • rigid/disciplined society
    • building of nation- state and army
  9. Peter the Great
    r. 1682- 1725

    who: always fighting, wanting to gain control of Baltic Sea

    • whats:
    • entered secret alliance with Denmark and poland against Sweden
    • defeated by Sweden....building army!
    • required all nobles to serve for life and schooling (peasant armies too)
    • 1709- defeated Swedent at poltia...Baltic
    • built St. Petersburg (modern- peasants- new center

    • whys:
    • united with rest of europe
    • serfdom increase
    • women's rights decrease (unigenture? )
  10. The Stuart Dynasty
    1603-1625; 1629-1640

    who: father and son attempting to be sole source of power in England

    • whats:
    • dictated he had a divine right to authority and responsible only to GOd (James I)
    • said people/commoners have no privileges compared to king
    • 1603-1640- conflicted with House of Commons
    • Charles I- attempted to govern w/out Parliament and finance with emergency taxes
    • gathers own troops from nobility to fight Scotland/Ireland

    • whys:
    • rise of absolutism
    • oppression of POP
    • led to country in crisis
  11. Oliver Cromwell and Protectorate

    • who: military dictatorship- power in Cromwell only
    • whats:
    • 1653-issued Instruments of Gov.- exec power in him and council of stated
    • dismissed Parliament (1655)..generals of 12 districts
    • reconquered Ireland, outlawing Catholicism (massacre)
    • 1651- Navigation Act- required all goods on English ships

    • whys:
    • absolutism
    • religious prejudice
    • boost to English marine force
  12. Thomas Hobbes and Leviathan

    who: philosopher with pessimistic view of how to reform gov

    • whats:
    • dictated humans would compete violently for power/$
    • placed humans under absolute ruler (maintain peace/order)
    • imagined society- human body; ruler= head. indiv=body parts
    • reasoned both need each other to live--> peace?

    • whys:
    • people live in harmony
    • need someone in charge
  13. Glorious Revolution and Bill of Rights

    who: peaceful appointment of new king &shared power laws

    • whats:
    • destroyed divine-right monarchy-->power shared w/ Pariliament
    • 1688-established soveirgnity= Parliament and king (rule with consent of people)
    • 1689- published Bill of Rights- parliament= top power
    • oppressed Catholics and their religion

    • whys:
    • led to an aristocratic gov.
    • Catholics still opressed
    • no bloodshed!!
  14. John Locke and second Treatise of Civil Gov.
    1632-1704; 1690

    who:political philosopher defending the representative gov made in Glorious Revolution

    • whats:
    • maintained gov's more than protecting: natural rights liberty and poverty---> tyranny
    • dictated natural= basic(all men can reason)
    • approved natural right to rebellion under tyranny
    • suggested limiting voting to prop. owners

    • whys:
    • ability to reason..sounds like Plato!
    • justified actions of people (natural rights)
  15. Baroque Arts/ Music
    after 1600

    who: "odd-shaped" style of art, amplifying emotions of Catholicism

    • whats:
    • patrons wanted artists to touch every day church goers (not just wealthy)
    • developed in (mostly) Catholic countries France
    • Peter Paul Rubers (1577-1640) developed style with animated figures, contrast &size (--> Catholic)
    • Bach (1685-1750)- combined spirt= invention, tension, emotion--> infinite

    • whys:
    • equality
    • brought people together
    • reflected Catholicism
Card Set
Chapter 16- Nation State
McKay chapter 16