Child Psych Test 2 vocab

  1. Describe Brain Plasticity.
    The high capacity for learning of a cerebral cortex that has many areas that are not yet committed to other functions
  2. The cephalocaudal trend states that ......
    During the prenatal period the head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body
  3. Describe the cerebral cortex.
    The largest brian structure, 85% brain weight, and contains the largest number of neurons & synapses
  4. Describe classical conditioning.
    This type of learning pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
  5. A conditioned response is one that. . . .
    Is similar to a reflexive response & caused by a neutral stimulus
  6. A conditioned stimulus is a . . . .
    Neutral stimulus that alone produces a response similar to a reflexive response
  7. Fontanels are what & how many are there?
    Gaps or soft spots that exist at birth separate the bones of the skull. There are 6
  8. What are glial cells?
    Cells that make up the fatty sheath of myelin that improves the efficiency of message transfer in neural fibers
  9. Habituation refers to . . . . .
    A gradual reduction in the strength of a response to a stimulus due to repetitive stimulation
  10. What is imitation?
    Copying of the behavior of another
  11. Kwashiorkor is a . . .
    Disease caused by an unbalanced diet, very low in protein. Usually occurs after weening fr 1-3 yrs of age
  12. Lateralization describes what?
    Specialization of 2 hemispheres or sides of the brain
  13. Mirror Neurons are what?
    Specialized cells in the cerebral cortex that fire identically when an action is heard or seen OR when that action is carried out
  14. What is myelination?
    The physical act of coating neural fibers with a fatty sheath (myelin) in order to improve the efficiency of message transfer
  15. Neurons are described as what?
    Nerve cells that store and transmit information
  16. A neurotransmitter is a . . . .
    Chemical released by nerve cells or neurons to send messages between each other
  17. Operant conditioning says that . . . .
    Infants act on the environment & stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again
  18. What is a pincer grasp?
    The coordinated use of the thumb & index finger to grasp an object
  19. What is the prefrontal cortex responsible for & where is it located?
    Thought, consciousness, inhibition of impulses, integration of info & use of memory, reasoning, planning & problem solving strategies. It is located ifo areas controlling body mvmt in the brain
  20. Describe the proximodistal trend.
    Procession of growth fr the center of the body outward
  21. Define punishment.
    Removal of a desired stimulus or presenting of an unpleasant one to decrease the occurance of a response
  22. What is skeletal age?
    A measure of the development of the bones of the body
  23. What are synapses?
    Tiny gaps in between neurons where neural fibers come close together but do not touch
  24. Synaptic pruning is described as what?
    Loss of synapses fr neurons fr lack of being stimulated returning them to an uncommitted state for future use
  25. Describe the Ulnar grasp.
    A clumsy motion in which an infants fingers do not close against their palm
  26. What is an unconditioned response?
    A reflexive reaction to an unconditioned stimulus
  27. What is an unconditioned stimulus?
    An action or item that causes a reflexive reaction
  28. Accommodation is the act of . . . .
    Creating new schemes or adjusting old ones after realizing current modes of thinking don't capture an environment completely
  29. Adaptation is the process of . . . .
    Building or creating schemes through direct interaction with the environment
  30. Assimilation is described as using . . . .
    Current schemes to interpret the external world
  31. Babbling is defined as what?
    Sound made by infants that repeat consonant - vowel combinations often in long strings ie bababababa
  32. Child - directed speech is defined as what?
    Form of communication made up of shirt sentences with high pitched, exagerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning & repetition of new words in a variety of content
  33. Circular reaction is described as what?
    Stumbling onto a new experience caused by a baby's own motor activity. As the infant tries to repeat the event again & again, a sensory motor response that originally occurred by chance becomes a scheme
  34. What is comprehension?
    Understanding of the language an infant is trying to produce. Usually occurs b/f production
  35. Cooing is described as . . . .
    Vowel like noises babies begin to make around 2 mos. Made b/c of their "oooo" quality
  36. Deferred imitation is described as . . . .
    The ability to remember & copy behavior of models who are not present
  37. Developmentally appropriate practices are described as what?
    Standards set by the US Natl Assoc for Education of Young Children that specify program characteristics that serve young children's development & individual needs based on current research & consensus among experts
  38. A displaced reference is a . . . .
    Realization around the first birthday that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically present
  39. An intelligence quotient is a . . . .
    Test score that indicates the extent to which raw score deviates fr typical performance of same age individuals
  40. Intentional or goal directed behavior is described as what?
    Coordinated schemes created to solve simple problems. Occurs @ 8-12 mos
  41. Joint attention is described as . . .
    The act of a child attending to the same object as the caregiver
  42. What is the language acquisition device?
    An innate sys that contains universal grammar or set of rules common to all languages, enabling children to understand & speak in a rule orients fashion as soon as they pick up enough words regardless of the language
  43. Our long term memory is what?
    Our permanent knowledge base
  44. Make believe play is described as . . .
    Children acting out everyday & imaginary activities
  45. Mental representation is what?
    Internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate
  46. Mental Strategies are described as what?
    Techniques used to operate & transform info that flows through our mental sys increasing chances we will retain it, use it efficiently & think flexibly adapting to changing circumstances
  47. The idea of object permanence says that . . .
    An infant's understanding that objects continue to exist when they are no longer in sight
  48. Overextension is described as . . . .
    The application of a word to a wider collection of objects & events than is appropriate
  49. Production is what?
    Word & word combinations used be children
  50. The act of recall is described as . . .
    Generating a mental image of a past experience w/o any perceptual support
  51. Recognition is . . .
    Noticing when a stimulus is identified or similar to one previously experienced
  52. A scheme is a what?
    Simple psychological structure or organized way of making sense of a new experience
  53. Describe Piget's sensorimotor stage.
    Piget's 1st stage - Spans 1st 2 yrs of life when children think w/their eyes, ears, hands & other sensorimotor equip
  54. Telegraphic Speech is defined as . . .
    2 word utterances that focus on high content words, omitting smaller less important ones. Utilized by toddlers once they produce about 200 words
  55. Underextension is described as an . . . .
    An error by young children, when they are 1st learning words, of applying them too narrowly
  56. Video deficit effect is defined as what?
    Poorer performance of a task when being shown by video rather than by a live person
  57. Your working or short term memory is what?
    The active application of mental strategies as we "work"on a limited amt of info
  58. The zone of proximal development refers to . . .
    A range of tasks that a child can not yet handle alone but can do with help of more skilled partners
  59. Attachment is a . . . .
    Strong affectionate tie we have for special ppl in our lives that leads us to experience pleasure & joy when we interact w/ them & to comforted by their nearness in times of stress
  60. Describe Autonomy Vs Shame & Doubt.
    Conflict of toddlerhood - resolved favorably when parents provide young children w/suitable guidance & reasonable choices
  61. Define avoidant attachment.
    • -Infant seems unresponsive to parents
    • -Infant experiences little stress when parents leave
    • -Infant reacts to strangers as they do parents
    • -Infant not clingy
  62. What are basic emotions? What are the 7?
    Universal among humans & other primates and have long evolutionary hx of promoting survival. The 7 are happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness & disgust
  63. Basic trust vs mistrust is a concept described as what?
    Psychological conflict during the first yr that is resolved positively when the balance of care is sympathetic & loving
  64. What is compliance?
    This occurs when a child shows a clear awareness of caregiver's wishes & expectations & can obey simple requests & commands
  65. Delay of gratification is described as what?
    Act of waiting for an appropriate time or place to engage in a tempting act
  66. Describe a difficult child.
    Irregular in daily routines, slow to accept new experiences & tends to react negatively & intensely
  67. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is described as . . . .
    At reunion w/parents shows confused contradictory behaviors. Characterized by dazed facial expressions, crying out unexpectedly or displaying odd, frozen postures
  68. An easy child is one that . . . .
    Quickly establishes reg routines in infancy, is generally cheerful & adapts easily to new experiences
  69. Emotional self regulation refers to what?
    Strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
  70. Empathy is described as . . . .
    Ability to understand another's emotional state and feel with that person or respond emotionally in a similar way
  71. Goodness of fit model explains what?
    How temperment & environment can together produce favorable outcomes. Involves creating child rearing environments that recognize each child's temperment while simultaneously encouraging more adaptive functioning
  72. An inhibited/shy child is described as one who . . . .
    Tends to react negatively & withdraws fr novel stimuli
  73. Interactional synchrony is described as a what?
    Special form of communication - described as a sensitively tuned "emotional dance" in which the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well-timed, rhythmic, appropriate fashion
  74. Secure attachment is described as . . .
    Infants use parents as a secure base. When separated they may or may not cry but if they do it is b/c parent is absent & they prefer her to a stranger. When parent returns they actively seek contact & crying is reduced immediately
  75. A secure base is described as . . . .
    Infants using a parent or caregiver as a point to venture out fr & then return for emotional support
  76. Self conscious emotions are described as . . .
    A higher order set of feelings that involves inj too or enhancement of our sense of self - ie guilt, envy, pride embarrassment
  77. Sensative Caregiving involves . . . .
    Responding promptly, consistently & appropriately to infants & holding them tenderly & carefully
  78. Separation anxiety causes . . . .
    Feelings of stress & becoming upset when a trusted caregiver leaves
  79. A slow-to-warm child is one that is . . . .
    Inactive, shows mild, low key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood & adjusts slowly to new experiences
  80. Social referencing is described as the . . .
    Act of seeking emotional info fr a trusted person in an uncertain situation
  81. A social smile is a . . . .
    Broad grin evoked by parents communication between 6 & 10 yrs of age
  82. Stranger anxiety is an . . .
    Expression of fear to unfamiliar adults
  83. Describe Mary Ainsworth's strange situation.
    Technique for assessing quality of attachment in 1-2 y/o's. Involves 8 short episodes in which brief periods of separation fr & reunion with parent occurs in order to observe child reaction
  84. Temperment is defined as what?
    Early appearing, stable, individual differences in reactivity & self regulation
  85. Reactivity refers to what?
    Quickness & intensity of emotional arousal, attn & motor activity
  86. What is self regulation?
    Strategies used that modify reactivity
  87. An uninhibited or social child is one that . . .
    Displays a positive emotion or approach to novel stimuli
Card Set
Child Psych Test 2 vocab
Vocab for Test 2