com 314

  1. we learn what is true by experience:
    what happens to us, what we do
  2. we learn what is true by authority:
    we learn from someone who is trustworthy, credible, or who may have the power to control what we learn
  3. we learn what is true by science:
    systematic and logical observation in search of truth
  4. Four divisions of understanding or truth
    • ontology
    • praxiology
    • epistemology
    • axiology
  5. ontology
    • what is it?
    • what is knowable
  6. praxiology
    how does it work
  7. epistemology
    • Why does it happen?
    • also the study of knowledge and how we know
  8. axiology
    • should it happen?
    • the role of values and morality in research and the building of knowledge
  9. all four questions must be answered in order to
    develop a sound theory that explains those effects
  10. Three basic world views:
    • traditionalism
    • modernism
    • post modernism
  11. traditionalism
    • dominant until 20th century
    • god exists
    • truth exists
    • to find truth, find god
  12. modernism
    • dominant until the last quarter of the 20th century
    • truth exists
    • god may or may not exist
    • human beings can find truth through rational means: objective observation, rational analysis and organization
  13. post modernism
    • dominant world view at the present time (not to the exclusion of others)
    • god does not exist (myth)
    • truth does not exist but is a "construct" based on our perceptions
    • experience and interpretation are the only means of explaining the world(or our perceptions of it)
  14. theory (Hoover)
    theory (Griffin)
    • a set of inter-related propostions that suggest why events occur in the manner that they do
    • a set of systematic informed hunches about the way things work
  15. theories have been called "nets":
    • with which we catch understanding about the world
    • as theory develops, net is tighter and denser, collecting smaller details of understanding
  16. sometimes theorys are compared to lenses:
    • focusing on particular things
    • highlighting or magnifying for closer examination
  17. Map
    another analogy for theory
  18. model
    • a metaphor for the relationship in a process
    • used by scientists to help clarify their thinking
  19. a successful theory must fulfill the following purposes:
    • description
    • explanation/understanding
    • prediction
    • control
  20. description
    must describe what happens in a particular communication event (ontology)
  21. explaination/understanding
    must explain how or why it happens (praxiology, epistemology)
  22. prediction
    if it can accurately identify what happens and why it happens, the theory ought to predict the phenomenon will happen again (ontology)
  23. control
    if you predict, then you may be able to control events and outcomes (axiology)
  24. theories grow by:
    • extension
    • intension
  25. extension
    adding new concepts and ideas which are tested hypotheses
  26. intension
    developing a deeper understanding of the basic concepts
  27. theories are tested:
    • hypothesis is developed
    • figure out how the hypothesis can be observed
    • carry out the experiment/survey in an objective and standardized manner
    • interpret the results
  28. results of empirical research must have:
    • reliability
    • validity
  29. reliability
    • repeatable
    • if you do project same way, you get same results
  30. validity
    they measure what they intent to measure
  31. research used to support a theory should have:
    • isomorphism
    • generalizability
  32. isomorphism
    • does it apply to the real world?
    • are the conditions in the study like those of the real world or are they artificial?
  33. generalizability
    does it apply to more than the people in the project?
  34. science is logical:
    • it follows the laws of logic
    • no two mutually exclusive qualities can exist at the same time in the same object
  35. science is deterministic:
    • things don't just happen without some catalyst or reason
    • there is cause and effect
  36. science is general:
    it is aimed at general understanding
  37. science is inter-subjective:
    mass com researchers and those in psychology or education should find the same results when they do the same experiment
  38. science is empirically verifiable:
    • no theory can be proved
    • it must be disproved
  39. science is open to modification:
    • if differing results occur, the reasons for them must be explained
    • there may be an error OR the results are not mutually exclusive
    • may adjust understanding to reflect new findings
  40. the goals of science are:
    • prediction
    • understanding
    • explaination
    • control
  41. prediction
    predicts what is going to happen
  42. understanding
    describe how it is going to happen
  43. explaination
    explain why it is going to happen
  44. control
    use the above knowledge to improve society and/or individuals
  45. social science approaches questions in the same way physical sciences do:
    • measures people, attitudes, values, motives and lots of intangible
    • things....
    • It includes the
    • fields of sociology, anthropology, psychology, political science, and mass com.

    • studies/measures and social phenomena – how is a society structured and
    • maintained/preserved.
    • has all of characteristics of science: logic, generality. etc
    • depends on established methods which have been and continue to be used in other
    • disciplines

    • creates social theories
  46. in social scientific research, standard steps are taken:
    • review past research
    • identify important questions which remain unanswered
    • identify/create best means of finding answers
    • gather required data
    • analyze data
    • present results
    • discuss what you've learned
  47. postivism is rooted in the
    basic qualities of physical science
  48. Mirror theory
    "we dont affect society, we merely reflect society," and we give people what they want
  49. three false premises under-gird the mirror theory
    • ratings are reasonable measurments of program consumption
    • the multitude of cable and television channels results in intense, unavoidable competition
    • television programming is risky
  50. market structure
    • business conditions or organization
    • made up of three types of structure: organizations/instutions structure, structure of content, and structure of industry
  51. institutionalization
    • "An element of society with clear roles and relationships within the society.
    • More than a mere organization."
    • Examples: Hospitals, universities, police
    • departments, public schools, churches, etc.
  52. vertical integration
    corporation owns or controls nearly all of the steps and processes in the production/distribution system
  53. horizontal integration
    • the corporation owns several of the same type of company
    • ex: only radio stations or only newspapers
    • each industry has to respond to the others around it
  54. direct sales
    • subscriptions
    • ex. magazine sales
  55. access sales
    where the advertiser gets access to potential customer through advertising on your medium
  56. branding
    logos at the bottom of the screen
  57. big 5 media companies
    Disney, Newscorp, General Electric, Time Werner, and Viacom
  58. trans-industrialization
    when a company owns all or most of the related elements of an industry
  59. synergy
    "you scratch my back, i'll scratch yours" approach
  60. an irrational marketplace obscures:
    the relationship between decisions and consequences
  61. capacity
    what can be accomplished with current technology, finances, and structure
  62. competence
    how well can you use the techniques and resources available?
  63. recirculation
    reruns in syndication or on cable channels, and frequently on both
  64. repackaging
    distribution on dvd or video
  65. reversioning
    production specials that re-use existing content with additional features
  66. recycling
    cutting up parts of a previous content and using it in a new way
  67. redeployment
    here the premises and symbolic universe of one show is used in other in the franchise
  68. re-launch
    promotion effort designed to reframe a series to build new audiences and encourage existing ones
  69. 2 primary means used for measuring performance
    • income
    • audience
  70. psychographics
    • life-style and attitude information about viewers
    • values, priorities, likes, dislikes
  71. demographics
    key statistics about viewers, age, income, education, marital status, etc
  72. rating
    % of homes WITH television watching your program
  73. Share
    % of homes using television watching your program
  74. diary
    handwritten log of what you watched
  75. peoplemeter
    device which measures what channel a set is tuned to and who is watching
  76. regulatory means of measurment
    • Media have to meet certain standards set up by the FCC and other government
    • bodies, including Congress: Children's Television Act, ownership limits,
    • indecency and obscenity standards are examples. (New interest in increased
    • regulation at the FCC.
  77. consumer criteria means of measurement
    (other than price) These relate to whether the consumers like the format, the controversy, and to what degree?
  78. industry practices means of measurment
    Various codes of ethics and also impose standards on media content. MPAA ratings, TV Ratings, NAB Code, etc.
  79. stakeholders in the society means of measurement
    Citizen's groups can make significant impact, and some have even worked "deals" with content providers to "clear" content before it goes to production or air.
  80. program content is the result of
    • the industry system rather than an accurate reflection of our culture or what
    • individual viewers would like to see.
  81. television content is:
    • disposable
    • plastic
    • limited in access
  82. disposable
    here today, gone tomorrow
  83. plastic
    mass appeal and superficial in nature because it has to please a lot of people
  84. limited in access
    lots of good material never gets on
Card Set
com 314
com theory