1. Repetitive behavior people direct toward themselves that result in tissue damage.
    Self-injurious behavior (SIB)
  2. List a few major topographies of Self-injurious behavior (SIB): ie. head banging .....
    head hitting, scratching, gouging, hair pulling, biting
  3. Related to ID, there are two distinct patterns of self-injury: what are they based on, and what are the durations?
    • Environmentally maintained: short
    • neurochemically driven: long
  4. Are suicide, accidental harm, stereotypy, and primitive reflexes associated with SIB?
  5. trauma, infection, disfigurement, and death are consequences of what?
    Self-injurious behavior (SIB)
  6. disruption of care giving, exclusion, social isolation, and institutionalization are social consequences of what?
  7. Rhythemic behavior is common; while SIB is uncommon, and generally is absent by age ___
  8. The prevelance of SIB in ID populations is __-___%
  9. Prevelance of SIB increases with two things:
    • Severity of ID; (Severe and profound MOST prevelant)
    • communication deficits
  10. Severe self injury is usually characterized by two things:
    • chronic recurrance;
    • having multiple topographies ( head hitting, biting, etc.)
  11. ____ is the most effective form of differential reinforcement for SIB.
    (DRI) Differential reinforcement of incompatability
  12. _______ may be necessary when SIB is chronic and severe, has not responded to less restricitve techniques, has multiple functions, is generalized across settings, and is life threatening.
    Aversive intervention (restraining, etc.)
  13. SIB is commonly co-morbid with what 3 things?
    • aggression,
    • communication deficits,
    • stereotypy (A stereotypy is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance(found in ID people))
  14. failure to follow requests, rule violations, temper tantrums, argumentiveness, and stubborness (Know the difference between them) are forms of ___________
  15. ___________ is the failure to behave as requested by others and/or as expected by societal standards.
  16. noncompliance is more associated with "do" or "don't" requests?
    Don't requests
  17. low reinforcement associated with compliance/task, complex or indirect instructions, and inattention are reasons for what with ID populations?
    reasons for noncompliance
  18. gain attention, clear & direct "do" instructions, increase rate of reinforcement, reduce task aversiveness, prevent escape, use response cost, and minimize reinforcement for disobediance. These are treatments for what?
  19. _____ is intended infliction of harm or injury upon another person.
  20. The prevelance of aggression in ID population is __-__%
  21. In this, prevelance is higher in males, young adults and adolescents, and the institutionalized. the greater the severity of ID, the greater likelihood of this:
  22. __________: aggression resulting from reflexive reaction to pain
    defensive aggression (a Classical conditioning model for aggression)
  23. ________: aggression related to hormonal or chemical changes in an organism
    elicted aggression ( a Classical conditioning model for aggression)
  24. The classical conditioning models of aggression are: (3)
    • coercion model of aggression
    • defensive aggression
    • elicted aggression
  25. all functions of behavior (tangible, attention, escape). Also, cultural significance in understanding social norms of agression. ( contact sports, violent video games, media). = ...
    Operant conditioning models of agression (operant conditioning is + - RF/ Punishment)
  26. ____________ is the use of aversive stimuli by one person in response to the behavior of another person that serves some function (ie. escape, tangibles(?) attention, and during extinction bursts) in aquiring reinforcement.
    The Coercion Model of aggression
  27. _________ aggression is an important mode of social learning and is more likely to be imitated when the model controls reinforcement availability (such as a parent).
    modeled aggression
  28. Treatment for ________ includes: comprehensive Tx packages based on functional analysis (antecedent management, Differential Reinforcement =DRA/DRFE best-- teach appropriate alternate skills, and punishment).
  29. Time-out can be a good punisher for aggression, UNLESS...
    their behavior is escape motivated; T/O = reinforcing
  30. the likely course / prognosis for aggression Tx is good, but Low/high intensity, severe/injurious AND when treatment is inconsistant = poor outcome
    Ok; so extreme conditions are not good for treatment of agression etc.
  31. AKA self-stimulatory behavior
  32. highly repetitive rhythemic motor activities that are topographically invariant and appear to have no adaptive function.
  33. Name some stereotypies: (ie. body-rocking)........
    objective mouthing, hand/finger movement, body posturing, thumb/limb sucking, object manipulation.
  34. Diagnosis for a stereotypy: (4 criteria)
    • lack of (topographical) variability regarding environmental change
    • long history of occurence
    • inappropriate relation to developmental age
    • voluntary repetition of pattern behavior
  35. How does a stereotypy differ from SIB?
    lack of tissue damage, injury
  36. how does stereotypy differ from tics? dyskinesia (fragmented motor movement)? OCD?
    • Tics: lack of sudden spasms
    • dyskinesia: lack of incomplete, fragmented motor movement
    • OCD: lack of social avoidance and resistance to change / novelty
  37. There are reprecussions of stereotypies. (2)
    educational and social effects (know examples of each)
  38. True/False: Stereotypy can be shaped into SIB?
  39. Prevelance of stereotypy in ID is 6%. It is more prevelant in which types of ID?
    severe, profound, AND the instituionalized
  40. an organism seeks an optimal level of arousal and engages in stereotypy for negative and positive reinforcement and stimulation: Theory of___________
    Theory of homeostasis (Know examples (of each) + and - RF)
  41. Tx for ______ include teaching alternate behavior, change aversive stimuli, increase activities with low rates of stereotypy, and intersperce activities associated with high and low rates
    functions of negative reinforcement
  42. Tx for ___________ include teach alternate behavior and use differential reinforcement.
    functions of positive reinforcement
  43. Tx for ______ include exercise, enriched environments, and instructional methods with high rates of (appropriate) response.
  44. Tx effects not long lasting, other maladaptive behavior may increase, do not teach alternate behavior, low social validity = problems with using ___________.
  45. Use of punishment should be usually only when less restrictive Tx has failed, and ...
    quality of life is severely affected.
  46. True/false It is easy to eliminate a stereotypy
    • FALSE
    • it is best to reduce it to an acceptable level/form or teach the ID person discretion of appropriate times!
  47. ___________ is gross motor behavior that occurs at high rates.
    Excessive Motor Behavior (EMB)
  48. Types of _________ are fidgetiness, out-of-seat, and away-from-seat behavior. (know the differences).
    EMB Excessive Motor Behavior
  49. EMB differs from stereotypy because it has ____ rates of topographical changes and are gross motor movements across _____ spaces
    • higher;
    • broad
  50. disrupted learning, elopement leading to serious risk, restricted environments, large consumption of time/effort of care givers, and increased chance for abuse are the effects of ___________ on ID populations.
    Excessive Motor Behavior EMB
  51. what is the prevelance of EMB among ID populations?
    unknown prevelance; but surveys suggest it is a common problem
  52. The etiology (study of causation) of EMB can be either ________: medication side effects, illness, biological features of a psychiatric D/O.
    ________: (tangibles (things perceptible by touch), attention, escape, or sensory reinforcement).
    • Physiological;
    • conditioning
  53. Tx for Excessive Motor Behavior includes: (2)
    shaping and chaining instructions, ruling out psychological / medical issues
  54. In EMB: when treating fidgetiness and out-of-seat behavior use:
    • interruption, redirection, and Differential Reinforcement
    • Do not use / AVOID using extinction!
  55. In EMB: when treating away-from-seat behavior, use.....
  56. the persistant and excessive swallowing of air.
  57. Signs of ______ include abdominal distension, excessive flatulence, frequent belching.
  58. The BEST method(s) for diagnosing aerophagia:
    Radiology (detects GI and liver placement abnormalities) + behavioral observation
  59. Measurements of aerophagia include: (3) things
    • frequency of air swallows,
    • use of polygraph analysis,
    • microvibration pick-up
  60. Effects of ________ include unecessary surgery and medication, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, constipation, anorexia, GI damage, (rarely) death.
  61. Etiology (study of causation) of aerophagia is unclear, but common predispositions include:(these are physiological)
    defective diaphragm, brain damage, skeletal abnormalities, conginital somatic problems.
  62. True/ False: aerophagia conditioning is not related to environmental variables
    • True;
    • it is related to sensory reinforcement! (farting, burping, dizziness)
  63. Treatment for acute aerophagia:
    bed rest, fluids, stool softeners & enemas
  64. Treatment for chronic aerophagia:
    • Differential reinforcement of acceptable/alternative sensory stimulation
    • medical/psychciatric evaluation (& subsequent Tx),
    • medication for sensory extinction
  65. Chronic aerophagia is resistant to punishment and reinforcement. Response blocking, positive practice overcorrection, and DRI (differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior) have a __________ effect.
    • short term;
    • no treatment is reported to be effective long term
  66. ________________ is the loss of opportunity to earn positive reinforcement or the loss of access to positive reinforcement for a specific period of time contingent upon the occurrence of a specific behavior.
  67. ________ can be inappropriate for individuals who engage in stereotypy or escape motivated behaviors.
  68. forms of _________ include planned ignoring, withdrawal of specific Reinforcement, contingent observation and using a time-out ribbon.
    non-exclusionary time-out
  69. An appropriate time-out area should have these things: (5)
    • safe
    • free of positive RF, stimulation, or distraction
    • sufficient light
    • allow monitoring
    • able to reach the T/O place in minimal time and effort
  70. For time-out to be effective, time-in must be......
    highly reinforcing.
  71. The rule of thumb for length of time out is......
    • 1 minute per year of developmental age
    • [if t/o is too long, it prevents opportunity for appropriate behavior, increase chance of punishment side effects, & decreases chance it will be used consistently]
  72. A(n) ____________ is a specified set of conditions that must be met for time-out to end.
    exit criterion
  73. __________ can be effective for training and trouble shooting the time-out procedure.
  74. There are a few potential problems with time-out: (3)
    • refusal to comply,
    • restitution of the environment,
    • elopement
  75. __________________ is the loss of a specified quantity of positive reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of a specified behavior.
    response cost ( ie token store economy)
  76. Response cost can be a loss of ____, ____ ,or _____.
    privileges, money, or tokens
  77. A __________ is more effective when used in conjunction with a token economy.
    response cost
  78. Benefits of response cost: it is discrete and nondisruptive, ........ (2 more)
    • continued ability to earn reinforcement for appropriate behavior &&
    • mild form of punishment
  79. Cautions of response cost: always have a "__________" reinforcement and do not gradually ___________ cost.
    • "reserve" reinforcement;
    • increase cost
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