Exam #1 Review Chapter 3

  1. What are the sex I's?
    • 1.) Inoculation
    • 2.) Isolation
    • 3.) Incubation
    • 4.) Inspection
    • 5.) Information gathering
    • 6.) Identification
  2. Inoculation is...
    producing a culture
  3. Isolation is...
    separating one species from another
  4. Incubation is...
    Providing proper growth conditions for the organisms to grow and growing the organisms.
  5. Inspection is...
    viewing organisms macroscopically and microscopically.
  6. Information gathering...
    any other additional tests to test the organisms.
  7. Identification is...
    finding out what you have
  8. What is the three catergories of media classification?
    • 1. Physical state
    • 2. Chemical Composition
    • 3. Functional type
  9. Physical state of media can be...(4)
    • 1. Liquid
    • 2. Semisolid
    • 3. Solid (Liquidfiable)
    • 4. Solid (Non-liquidfiable)
  10. The chemical compostition of media can be...(2)
    • 1. Synthetic (chemically defined)
    • 2. Nonsynthetic (complex; not chemically defined)
  11. The functional type of media can be...(6)
    • 1. General purpose
    • 2. Enriched medium
    • 3. Selective media
    • 4. Differential media
    • 5. Transport media
    • 6. Reducing media
  12. What is agar? What makes it useful? (7)
    • Agar is a liquefiable solid media that is made from red algae.
    • It is solid at room temp.
    • Melts at 100 degrees C.
    • Resolidifies at 42 degrees C.
    • Flexible, moldable
    • Good framework for nutrients(can add nutrients)
    • Indigestible itself
  13. What is an inoculum?
    A small sample of organisms.
  14. What is the difference between selective and differential media?
    • Selective media- inhibits growth of most but encourages growth of others. Some organisms grow really well.
    • Differential media- allows growth of most but the appearance differs. Appearance may be different for the different organisms. For an example: the color.
  15. What is the difference between synthetic and non-synthetic media?
    • Synthetic media- is all the ingredients are chemically defined meaning that all the ingredients come off the chemistry shelf (examples: sugars, salts, etc.)
    • Non-sythetic- at least one of the ingredients is not chemically defined. (Can not be exactly measured) (examples: proteins, yeast extract, blood, beef, milk, soybean, etc.)
  16. What are fastidious organisms?
    Fastidious organisms reguire specialized conditions for growth because they have more needs.
  17. What synthetic medium do we use the most in class?
    Simmons Citrate agar.
  18. How to determine total magnification of a microscope?
    Total Magnification = Objective Magnification X Ocular Magnification
  19. What is resolving power?
    Resolving power is ability to show detail in the organism.
  20. What are the differences between scanning and transmission electron microscopes?
    • Scanning electron microscope- gives external surface of microbe( a 3-D image). Has worse magnification of 100,000x and worse resolution of 10 nm than transmission electron microscope.
    • Transmission electron microscope- gives fine detail of thinly sliced sections of microbes. Has better magnification of 1,000,000x magnification, and better resolution of 0.5 nm than an scanning electron microscope.
  21. Magnification using a microscope is...
    the ability to show detail.
  22. When using electron microscopes you must use ________ organisms.
  23. Brightfield microscopes...(2)
    • You are going to see a dark speciman on a light background.
    • General purpose use of microscope.
  24. Dark-field microscope...(2)
    • You are going to see a light specimen on a dark backgrouns.
    • Useful on live specimens.
  25. Phase-contrast microscope...(3)
    • Varies in the bending of light.
    • You are going to see brighter brights and darker darks.
    • Good for internal detail.
  26. Fluorescence microscopes...(2)
    • Microscope uses ultraviolet light and fluorescent dyes.
    • Used to diagnosis Tuberculosis (TB)
  27. Confocal microscope...(2)
    • Microscope uses lasers to "slice" specimen.
    • Shows good internal detail/ everything is in focus.
  28. What is a pure culture?
    A pure culture is growth of one known species.
  29. What is a mixed culture?
    • A mixed culture is two or more indentified, easily differentiated species.
    • (All medical samples would be mixed)
  30. What is a contaminated culture?
    A contaminated culture was intended to be pure or mixed but unknowns ended up being introduced.
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Exam #1 Review Chapter 3
microbiology exam review