Nutrition 1 powerpoints

  1. Philosophy on nutrition
    natural is better
  2. basic science on nutrition
    biochemistry, physiology
  3. what is the hierarchy of research evidence? (lowest to highest)
    animal research/labroratory studies, editorials/opinions, case reports, case series, case-control studies, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, systematic review
  4. what do observational studies find?
    associatios between behaviors and health
  5. what are examples of observational studies?
    case-control, cross-sectional, cohort
  6. what do intervention studies look at?
    effects of treatments
  7. what is an example of an intervention study?
    clinical trials
  8. what disease is most affected by increased BMI?
  9. what data do you collect to evaluate weight?
    • BMI
    • waist circumference
    • history
  10. when is weight loss recommended?
    • BMI= 30 or more
    • health risk and a BMI of 25-30
    • health risk and big waist circummference
  11. what are the genetic factors causing an obesity epidemic?
    • fat storage to avoid starvation
    • obese body type
  12. what are the environmental factors leading to an obesity epidemic?
    • high fat and sugar foods available everywhere
    • sedentary lifestyles
  13. what are the behavioral/psychological problems causing an obesity epidemic?
    • eating habits not associated with appetite
    • eating because of emotions/stress
    • psychological disorders causing overeating
  14. most fat is what?
    fatty acids
  15. what makes up 95% of dietary lipids?
  16. healthy fats are?
    unsaturated= mono and cis-poly
  17. polyunsaturated fats consist of what 2 groups?
    omega-3 and omega-6
  18. what are unhealthy fats?
    saturated and trans-unsaturated
  19. how are trans-unsaturated fats made?
    from partial hydrogenation
  20. what fat has the highest saturated fat?
    coconut oil
  21. what fat is highest in monounsaturated fat?
    olive oil
  22. what fat is highest in polyunsaturated fats?
    chia seed oil
  23. what fat is highest in omega-3 fats?
    chia seed oil
  24. what fat is highest in omega-6 fats?
    safflower oil
  25. what fat is highest in trans-fats?
    stick soy bean oil margarine
  26. chylomicrons
    • produced by the intestinal cells
    • delivers dietary triglycerides to adipose and muscle via lipoprotein lipase in the capillaries
    • problems are uncommon
  27. chylomicron remnant
    • leftover fats from chylomicron
    • delivers dietary cholesterol to the liver via receptor mediated uptake
  28. VLDL
    • produced by the liver
    • contains endogenous cholesterol and triglycerides
    • delivers triglycerides and adipose to muscle via lipoprotein lipase
    • problems are common
  29. IDL
    • leftover of VLDL
    • contains endogenous cholesterol
    • either taken up into liver by receptor or turned into LDL
  30. LDL
    • develops from IDL
    • delivers cholesterol to tissues or is taken up by the liver
    • abnormalities are common since numbers are raised by trans and saturated fats
  31. HDL
    • empty HDL secreted by the liverruns around collecting cholesterol from tissues and other lipoproteins and returns it to the liver
    • low levens commonly found (bad)
  32. healthy level of LDL
    below 130
  33. healthy level of HDL
    above 40
  34. healthy level of triglycerides
    below 150
  35. sources of liver cholesterol
    • dietary (chylomicron remnants)
    • de novo synthesis
    • HDLs, LDLs, IDLs
  36. how cholesterol leaves the liver
    • VLDL synthesis
    • free cholesterol in bile
    • converted to bile acids/salts
  37. roles of the liver
    • takes up cholesterol from chylomicron remnant
    • dietary glucose -> triglycerides
    • makes VLDL and HLD
    • regulates de novo cholesterol and biliary disposal
  38. diet is calculated by:
    % carbohydrates + % fat + % protein
  39. effect of mono and polyunsaturated fats on cholesterol levels
    decreased LDL, increased HDL
  40. effects of saturated fats on cholesterol levels
    increases LDL and HDL
  41. effects of trans fats on cholesterol levels
    increased LDL
  42. effects of substituting a carb with a good fat
    • stabilizes total cholesterol and LDL level
    • increases HDL levels
    • decreases triglyceride levels
  43. effects of substituting a saturated fat with a good fat
    • decreased LDL level
    • stabelizes HDL and triglyceride levels
    • decreases risk of thrombosis
    • decreases risk of cardiac arrhythmia
  44. sources of monounsaturated fats
    • olive oil
    • canola oil
    • nuts
    • avocado
  45. sources of omega-6 fats
    vegetable oils
  46. sources of omega-3 fats
    • seeds
    • fatty fish
  47. what type of fat increases your risk of heart disease?
    trans fats
  48. diets allowing what type of fats show a decrease in vascular disease
    healthy fats
  49. is there a correlation between overall fat and cancer?
  50. there is an increased/decreased risk of breast cancer from eating what fats?
    • animal fat (increased)
    • olive oil (decreased)
  51. there is an increased risk of colon cancer from eating what fats?
    red meat and processed meats
  52. linoleic acid
  53. gamma-linolenic acid
  54. dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid
    • omega-6
    • eicosanoid precursor
  55. arachidonic acid
    • omega-6
    • eicosanoid precursor
  56. alpha-linolenic
  57. eicosapentaenoic acid
    • omega-3
    • eicosanoid precursor
  58. docosahexaenoic acid
  59. elongase enzymes
    add a 2 carbon pair
  60. desaturase enzymes
    inserts a double bond
  61. what determins which EFAs are found in the body?
    • genetics
    • diet and supplements
  62. what is the ratio for EFAs in the western diet?
    10:1 favoring omega-6
  63. what is the ratio for EFAs in a natural diet?
  64. are short or long chain EFAs found more commonly in the body?
    short chain
  65. how are most short EFAs provided?
    through the diet
  66. is arachidonic acid production high or low?
    low (good thing!)
  67. is long chain omega-3 production high or low in the body?
  68. EFA functions
    • membrane structure and function
    • vision
    • nervous system
    • eicosanoid synthesis
    • gene expression regulation
  69. how do EFAs assist in membrane structure and function? (which EFA?)
    • linoleic acid
    • influcence receptor function, membrane permeability, signal transduction, transport proteins
  70. which EFA helps with vision?
  71. which EFA helps with the nervous system?
    DHA and AA
  72. what are the effects of eicosanoid synthesis
    • inflammation
    • vasoconstriction
    • coagulation
    • smooth muscle activity
  73. what are the effects of EFA on gene expression regulation?
    • inflammation
    • fatty acid metabolism
  74. what are the precursors to eicosanoids?
  75. cyclooxygenase produces which eicosanoid?
    • prostaglandins
    • thromboxanes
  76. lipoxygenase produce which eicosanoids?
  77. eicosanoids produced from DGLA have what effects?
  78. eicosanoids produced from AA have what effects?
    • inflammation
    • platelet stickiness
    • vasoconstriction/bronchoconstriction
    • smooth muscle contraction
    • BAD!!!!
  79. eicosanoids produced from EPA have what effects?
  80. primary and secondary prevention with omega-3s for vascular disease showed reduced risk of:
    • heart attack
    • ischemic stroke
    • overal mortality
  81. define EFA deficiency
    • acute
    • severe
    • symptoms
  82. define EFA insufficiency
    • chronic
    • mild
    • health risks
  83. what is the most likely way to end up with EFA deficiency?
  84. what are signs of EFA deficiency?
    • skin changes
    • growth probles
    • reduced resistance to infection
    • poor healing
  85. what insufficiency is common?
  86. sources of linoleic acid?
    • (omega-6)
    • vegetable oils, nuts, seeds
  87. sources of gamma-linolenic acid?
    • (omega-6)
    • supplements only!
  88. sources of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid?
    • (omega 6)
    • none available!!
  89. source of arachadonic acid?
    • (omega 6)
    • animal fats
  90. source of linolenic acid?
    • (omega-3)
    • flax, walnuts, canola oil, soy bean oil
  91. sources of EPA and DHA?
    • (omega-3)
    • oily fish
    • supplements
  92. what safety issues do you need to be concerned about with supplements?
    • allergies
    • gastrointestinal distress when taking high levels
    • anti-clotting effects of fish oils
    • drug interactionscontaminants in fish (and fish oils)
  93. what can you do to limit your amount of contaminants in fish?
    • aboid the large, hazardous species
    • prepare and cook to remove the fatty residues
  94. what contaminants are found in fish? what part of the fish are they found in?
    • mercury-skin
    • polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the fat
  95. nut intake is shown to do what?
    • lower cholesterol
    • reduce the risk of heart disease
    • reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes
  96. intake of seeds is show to do what?
    • lower inflammatory mediators
    • lower cholesterol
    • modify hormone function
  97. what are the main health promoting fat sources?
    • natural unprocessed oils
    • uncontaminated oily fish and fish oils
    • nuts and seeds
Card Set
Nutrition 1 powerpoints
cards for test 1